Did Ancient Greece Have Psychedelics?

In ancient Greece, a civilization known for its intellectual and cultural achievements, the use of psychedelics was not uncommon. While there is limited direct evidence of psychedelic use in ancient Greece, there are several indications that suggest the presence of these substances in their society.

The Eleusinian Mysteries

One of the most prominent examples of potential psychedelic use in ancient Greece is the Eleusinian Mysteries. These were secret religious rituals held annually in honor of Demeter and Persephone, the Greek goddesses of agriculture and the underworld, respectively.

The exact details of these mysteries were closely guarded secrets and were only revealed to initiates. However, there are references in ancient texts that suggest the consumption of a mysterious drink called kykeon during the ceremonies. This drink is believed by some scholars to have contained psychoactive substances such as ergot or other hallucinogens.

The Oracle at Delphi

Another intriguing aspect of ancient Greek culture that hints at psychedelic use is the Oracle at Delphi. The Oracle was a priestess who served as a medium for Apollo, the god of prophecy. She would enter a trance-like state and provide answers to seekers’ questions.

Some theories propose that the Oracle’s trance-like state was induced by inhaling vapors rising from a chasm beneath her seat. These vapors were said to have hallucinogenic properties due to geological activity in the region, possibly containing ethylene or other psychoactive gases.

Philosophical Influence

Ancient Greek philosophy also provides clues about possible psychedelic use. The philosopher Pythagoras, known for his contributions to mathematics and metaphysics, believed in metempsychosis or transmigration of souls.

It has been suggested that Pythagoras used psychedelics to induce altered states of consciousness, which he believed allowed the soul to explore different realms. Additionally, Plato, another influential Greek philosopher, wrote about the concept of “divine madness,” which some interpret as a reference to psychedelic experiences.

Art and Architecture

Ancient Greek art and architecture also offer intriguing insights into the potential use of psychedelics. The depiction of Dionysus, the god of wine and ecstasy, in various artworks often includes imagery associated with altered states of consciousness.

Furthermore, the presence of mushroom motifs in ancient Greek pottery has sparked speculation about psychedelic mushroom use in their society. While this interpretation is speculative, it underscores the cultural fascination with altered states.


While direct evidence is scarce, there are compelling indications that psychedelics played a role in ancient Greek society. The Eleusinian Mysteries, the Oracle at Delphi, philosophical beliefs, and artistic depictions all suggest a familiarity with altered states of consciousness.

However, it is essential to approach these interpretations with caution and acknowledge that our understanding of ancient Greece is limited. Nevertheless, exploring these possibilities adds depth to our understanding of this remarkable civilization and its relationship with psychoactive substances.