Did Ancient Greece Have Two Legislative Bodies?

Did Ancient Greece Have Two Legislative Bodies?

Ancient Greece, known for its rich history and profound influence on modern civilization, had a unique system of government that included legislative bodies. The question of whether Ancient Greece had two legislative bodies is a topic of much debate among historians and scholars.

The Athenian Assembly

In ancient Athens, the birthplace of democracy, the primary legislative body was the Athenian Assembly. This assembly consisted of all male citizens over the age of 18, who were eligible to vote and participate in the decision-making process.

The Athenian Assembly met regularly on a hill called the Pnyx to discuss and vote on important matters. These matters included laws, regulations, public policies, declarations of war, and diplomatic matters. Every citizen had an equal voice in these discussions, regardless of their social status or wealth.

During these meetings, citizens would stand up to speak in front of the assembly. To ensure order and fairness, each speaker was given a specific amount of time to voice their opinions. This allowed for a democratic exchange of ideas and ensured that every citizen had an opportunity to be heard.

The Council of 500

In addition to the Athenian Assembly, Ancient Greece also had another legislative body known as the Council of 500. This council was responsible for preparing legislation and proposing it to the assembly for discussion and voting.

The Council of 500 consisted of 500 members who were chosen by lot from among eligible citizens. Each member served for one year with limited powers to prevent corruption or abuse of authority. The council met daily at the Bouleuterion (Council House) located in Athens.

Members of the Council were tasked with reviewing proposals from citizens and other government officials, drafting laws, managing public finances, and overseeing the day-to-day administration of the city-state. They played a crucial role in shaping the legislative agenda and ensuring that decisions made by the assembly were implemented effectively.

The Relationship Between the Two Bodies

While both the Athenian Assembly and the Council of 500 played important roles in Ancient Greek democracy, they had distinct functions and responsibilities.

The Athenian Assembly served as the ultimate decision-making body, where citizens directly participated in debates and voting. It was a symbol of democratic governance and political equality.

The Council of 500, on the other hand, acted as a preparatory body that facilitated discussions and drafted legislation for consideration by the assembly. Its members played a more administrative role in managing the affairs of Athens.

In this way, both bodies complemented each other in ensuring that decisions were well-informed, debated thoroughly, and implemented efficiently.


Ancient Greece indeed had two legislative bodies—the Athenian Assembly and the Council of 500. While the assembly represented direct democracy with citizens participating in decision-making processes, the council acted as an administrative body responsible for proposing legislation and managing daily affairs.

This unique system allowed for a balance between citizen participation and efficient governance—a defining feature of Ancient Greek democracy.