How Did the Mongols Affect World History?

The Mongols were a nomadic people who originated in the vast grasslands of Central Asia. They were known for their exceptional horsemanship and fierce warrior skills, which allowed them to conquer vast territories throughout Eurasia in the 13th and 14th centuries. Their impact on world history was profound and far-reaching.

The Mongol Empire
At its peak, the Mongol Empire was the largest contiguous empire in history, stretching from Eastern Europe to East Asia. It was founded by Genghis Khan, who united various tribes under his rule and established a highly efficient military machine. The Mongols were known for their brutal tactics on the battlefield, which included using psychological warfare, such as flying flags with skulls or heads of their enemies.

The Silk Road

One of the most significant impacts of the Mongols on world history was their role in facilitating trade along the Silk Road. The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected China with Europe and Africa.

The Mongols took control of much of this route during their conquests, making it safer for merchants to travel and trade goods. They also encouraged cultural exchange along this route, which led to the spread of ideas and technologies between different parts of Eurasia.

The Pax Mongolica

The period of Mongol rule is sometimes referred to as the Pax Mongolica or “Mongol Peace.” During this time, there was relative peace and stability throughout much of Eurasia as a result of the strong central authority provided by the Mongol Empire. This allowed for increased trade and communication between different regions, which helped to spur economic growth and cultural exchange.

The Yuan Dynasty
The Mongols also had a significant impact on Chinese history. After conquering China in 1279, they established the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368), which ruled over China for almost a century.

During this time, the Mongols introduced new technologies and cultural practices to China, such as gunpowder and paper money. They also helped to spread Chinese culture to other parts of Eurasia.

The Decline of the Mongol Empire

Despite their early successes, the Mongols were not able to maintain their empire indefinitely. The vast size of their territory made it difficult to govern effectively, and they faced challenges from rival powers such as the Mamluks in Egypt and the Timurids in Central Asia. The Black Death also had a devastating impact on the Mongol population, weakening their military and economic power.


Despite their decline, the legacy of the Mongols lives on. Their impact on world history can still be felt today in many ways, from cultural exchange along the Silk Road to their influence on Chinese history. The Mongols were also instrumental in shaping the modern world through their role in facilitating trade between different regions and spreading new technologies and ideas.

  • Their military tactics influenced later conquerors such as Napoleon and Hitler.
  • Their impact on world history has been recognized by scholars such as William McNeill who coined the term “The Rise of The West” referring to how Western Europe became a dominant force after making contact with Eurasia.

In conclusion, the Mongols had a profound impact on world history that is still felt today. Their conquests facilitated trade along the Silk Road and led to increased cultural exchange between different regions.

They also helped shape Chinese history during their rule over China. Although they are no longer an empire, their legacy lives on through their influence on later conquerors and their significant role in shaping modern civilization.