How Did They Make Bread in Ancient Greece?

Bread has been a staple food in many cultures for centuries, including in ancient Greece. The Greeks were known for their advancements in various fields, including agriculture and food preparation.

So how did they make bread in ancient Greece? Let’s explore the process.


The ingredients used to make bread in ancient Greece were simple – flour, water, and salt. The flour was usually made from barley or wheat, which were two of the most common crops grown in Greece. Sometimes, other ingredients such as honey or milk would be added to the dough to give it a sweeter taste.

The Process

The process of making bread in ancient Greece was a time-consuming one that required a lot of effort and patience. First, the wheat or barley would be ground into flour using a hand mill or a quern. The flour would then be mixed with water and salt to form a dough.


The dough was then kneaded vigorously by hand for at least half an hour to develop gluten and create a smooth texture. This process required strength and endurance since the dough could be quite stiff.


Once the kneading was complete, the dough was left to rise for several hours until it had doubled in size. This was done either by leaving it out in a warm place or by placing it in an oiled bowl covered with a cloth.


Finally, the bread was baked in either an outdoor oven or on an indoor hearth. The oven was usually made of clay and heated with wood or charcoal. The bread was placed directly on the floor of the oven or on shelves made of clay tiles.

Types of Bread

There were several different types of bread that were commonly eaten in ancient Greece:

  • Artos – a plain, white bread that was eaten by the wealthy
  • Enkris – a denser bread made from barley flour that was eaten by the poor
  • Maza – a small, flatbread that was often served with meat or cheese
  • Passalus – a sweet bread made with honey and sesame seeds


In conclusion, making bread in ancient Greece required hard work and dedication. The process may have been time-consuming, but the end result was a delicious and nutritious staple food that sustained many people for centuries. Today, we can still enjoy the taste of ancient Greek bread by using traditional recipes and methods.