How Many Genders Were in Ancient Greece?

In ancient Greece, the concept of gender was quite different from how we understand it today. Unlike the binary understanding of male and female that is prevalent in many societies today, ancient Greece recognized a variety of genders that went beyond this simplistic categorization.

The Binary Gender System

While ancient Greece recognized a diverse range of genders, it is important to note that they still operated within a binary gender system. The two primary genders were male and female, which corresponded to biological sex. However, even within this binary system, there were variations and exceptions.


Eunuchs were individuals who had been castrated and therefore did not possess the ability to reproduce. In ancient Greece, eunuchs held various roles in society, including serving as attendants in the royal court or temples. They were often considered to be a distinct gender category due to their unique physical characteristics.


Hermaphrodites were individuals who possessed both male and female sexual characteristics. While rare, hermaphrodites were not unheard of in ancient Greece. They were often seen as embodying both genders and occupied a unique place within society.


Androgynes were individuals who displayed a combination of both masculine and feminine traits or characteristics. They blurred the lines between traditional male and female roles and identities. Androgynous individuals could be seen as having a fluid or non-binary gender identity.


Amazonians were mythological female warriors who defied traditional gender roles by engaging in warfare and other traditionally masculine activities. While not strictly a recognized gender category in ancient Greece, the existence of Amazonian legends suggests that there was some recognition of alternative expressions of femininity.


Ancient Greece acknowledged a more nuanced understanding of gender than the binary system prevalent in many societies today. While the primary genders were male and female, there was recognition of individuals who did not neatly fit into these categories. Eunuchs, hermaphrodites, androgynes, and even mythological figures like Amazonians challenged traditional gender norms, showcasing the diversity that existed within ancient Greek society.

Understanding the complexity of gender in ancient Greece helps us challenge our own preconceived notions and highlights the importance of recognizing the diversity of human experiences throughout history.