How Was Agriculture Done in Ancient Times?

Agriculture has always been a vital part of human civilization. In ancient times, people relied heavily on agriculture for their survival. Farming practices have come a long way since those times, but it’s worth exploring how agriculture was done in ancient times and the impact it had on society.

Agriculture in Ancient Times

In ancient times, agriculture was primarily done by hand without any modern tools or machinery. People used basic tools like hoes, shovels, and plows to cultivate the land. The process of preparing the soil for planting was a tedious task that required a lot of physical labor.

Types of Crops

The types of crops that were grown varied depending on the region and climate. In Egypt, the Nile river valley provided ideal conditions for growing crops like wheat and barley.

In Mesopotamia, farmers grew crops like dates, figs, and olives. Agriculture in India was centered around rice cultivation.

Animal Husbandry

Animal husbandry was an essential part of agriculture in ancient times. People reared animals like cows, goats, sheep, and pigs for their meat and milk. These animals were also used as a source of labor to till the land.

Irrigation Methods

Irrigation played a crucial role in agriculture in ancient times. Farmers used various methods to irrigate their fields such as digging canals to divert water from rivers or using wells to draw water from underground sources.

The Impact of Agriculture on Society

The development of agriculture had a significant impact on human society. It allowed people to settle in one place instead of being nomadic hunter-gatherers. This led to the formation of permanent settlements and the growth of cities.

Food Surplus

Agriculture also led to food surplus which allowed for the development of trade and commerce. People were able to produce more food than they needed, which they could then trade for other goods and services.

Division of Labor

Agriculture also led to the division of labor in society. As farming became more specialized, people began to specialize in other trades such as metalworking, weaving, and pottery.


In conclusion, agriculture was a vital part of human civilization in ancient times. It allowed people to settle down in one place and develop permanent settlements.

It led to the development of trade and commerce, specialization of labor, and the growth of cities. Although farming practices have come a long way since ancient times, the impact of agriculture on human society cannot be overstated.