How Was Mirror Made in Ancient Times?

In ancient times, mirrors were a luxury item that only the wealthy could afford. The earliest examples of mirrors were made from polished stones, metals, and even obsidian. These primitive mirrors had limited reflective properties and were not as clear as modern mirrors.

The Invention of Glass Mirrors

The invention of glass mirrors is credited to the Romans in the first century AD. They discovered that by coating the back of a piece of glass with a reflective metal such as tin or lead, they could create a much clearer reflection than with polished metal or stone.

The Venetian Mirror

During the Renaissance period, Venetian glassmakers perfected the art of making mirrors. The Venetian mirror was made by pouring molten glass onto a flat surface and then polishing it until it was smooth and clear. The back of the glass was then coated with mercury, which produced a highly reflective surface.

Fun Fact: It is said that Venetian glassmakers were so skilled at making mirrors that they were forbidden from leaving Venice for fear that they would reveal their trade secrets to competitors.

The Silvered Mirror

In the 19th century, silvered mirrors became popular due to their brighter and clearer reflection. These mirrors were made by coating the back of a piece of glass with silver nitrate or ammonia and then adding a layer of copper to protect the silver from tarnishing.

Did you know? The term “silvering” is still used today to describe the process of coating glass with reflective material.

Mirror Making Today

Today, most mirrors are made using a process called “float glass.” This involves pouring molten glass onto a bed of molten tin and allowing it to cool slowly. The resulting sheet of glass is then cut into various sizes and shapes before being coated with aluminum or silver to create a reflective surface.

  • Mirrors are used in a variety of industries, from automotive to healthcare.
  • The largest mirror in the world is the Gran Telescopio Canarias, which has a diameter of 10.4 meters and is located in the Canary Islands.
  • It is believed that looking into a broken mirror brings seven years of bad luck.


The history of mirrors is fascinating and shows how technology has evolved over time. From primitive polished stones to modern-day float glass mirrors, the reflective surface has come a long way. Whether used for vanity or scientific research, mirrors remain an essential part of our daily lives.