How Was Science Practiced in Ancient and Medieval Times?

In ancient and medieval times, science was not practiced in the same way as it is today. There were no research labs or advanced equipment to conduct experiments.

Instead, scientific knowledge was gained through observation, deduction, and trial and error. Let’s take a closer look at how science was practiced during these times.

The Ancient Greeks

The ancient Greeks are often credited with laying the foundation for modern science. Greek philosophers such as Aristotle and Pythagoras made significant contributions to fields like physics, mathematics, and astronomy.

Aristotle believed in the power of observation and urged his students to study nature closely. He also developed a system of logic that is still used today. Pythagoras is best known for his theorem in geometry, but he also studied music theory and believed that everything in the universe could be explained through mathematics.

The Islamic Golden Age

During the Islamic Golden Age (8th-15th centuries), many scientific advancements were made in fields like chemistry, medicine, and astronomy. Muslim scholars built upon the knowledge of ancient Greek scientists and developed their own theories.

One of the most famous scientists of this time was Al-Razi (also known as Rhazes). He is considered one of the greatest physicians in history and wrote many books on medicine and philosophy. Another notable figure was Al-Khwarizmi, who developed algebraic equations that are still used today.

The Middle Ages

During the Middle Ages (5th-15th centuries), science was often intertwined with religion. Many scholars believed that studying nature was a way to better understand God’s creation.

One of the most famous scientists from this period was Leonardo da Vinci. He made significant contributions to fields like anatomy, engineering, and art. Another notable figure was Roger Bacon, who believed that scientific experimentation was crucial for gaining knowledge.


Although science in ancient and medieval times was very different from how it is practiced today, it laid the groundwork for many of the scientific advancements that we enjoy today. Through observation, deduction, and trial and error, scientists made significant contributions to fields like mathematics, astronomy, and medicine.