How Was Terracotta Made in Ancient Greece?

Terracotta is a type of fired clay that has been used for centuries to create various objects, from decorative figurines to practical items like pots and pans. In ancient Greece, terracotta was particularly popular due to its durability and versatility. Let’s dive deeper into the process of how terracotta was made during that time period.

The Raw Materials

To make terracotta, three basic materials were needed: clay, water, and temper. Clay was the main ingredient and could be found in various locations throughout Greece. The type of clay used varied depending on the desired outcome; some clays were better suited for creating large objects like amphorae (large jars), while others were better for smaller items like figurines.

Water was used to moisten the clay and make it malleable enough to mold into the desired shape. Temper, which could be anything from sand to crushed pottery shards, was added to the clay mixture to prevent cracking during firing.

The Process

The first step in making terracotta was to collect the raw materials and mix them together. This process was typically done by hand using a large wooden paddle or similar tool. The resulting mixture would then be shaped into the desired form using various techniques such as coiling or pinching.

Once the object had been shaped, it would be left out in the sun or in a warm area to dry completely. This process could take several days depending on the size of the object.

After drying, the object would be placed in a kiln (a special oven) and fired at high temperatures for several hours. This process transformed the clay into hardened terracotta.

Decorating Terracotta

Ancient Greeks were known for their intricate designs on pottery and other objects made from terracotta. These designs were typically painted onto the surface using various pigments such as red, black, and white.

Some objects were also decorated using a technique called relief, which involved carving the design into the surface of the clay before firing. This created a 3D effect that was both visually appealing and functional, as it provided additional grip for holding onto the object.


Terracotta was an important material in ancient Greece and was used to create a wide range of objects. The process of making terracotta involved mixing clay, water, and temper together to form a moldable mixture that could be shaped into the desired form.

After drying, the object was fired in a kiln to create hardened terracotta. The resulting object could then be decorated using various techniques such as painting or relief carving.