Was Red Hair Common in Ancient Greece?

Red hair has long been associated with Celtic and Viking cultures, but what about ancient Greece? Was red hair common among the ancient Greeks? Let’s delve into the historical records and find out.

The Origins of Red Hair

Red hair is a result of genetic variation in the MC1R gene, which controls the production of pigment in our hair. This gene mutation leads to a higher concentration of reddish-brown pigment called pheomelanin. The occurrence of red hair is relatively rare, accounting for only 1-2% of the global population.

Red Hair in Ancient Greek Mythology

In Greek mythology, red hair was often associated with specific gods and goddesses. For instance, both Dionysus, the god of wine and revelry, and his female counterpart Aphrodite, the goddess of beauty and love, were occasionally depicted with red hair.

Additionally, Heracles (Hercules), one of the most famous figures in Greek mythology, was sometimes described as having fiery red locks. These mythical representations suggest that red hair held some significance or symbolism in ancient Greek culture.

Evidence from Ancient Texts

Unfortunately, very few surviving ancient texts directly mention red-haired individuals in ancient Greece. However, one notable exception is Xenophanes’ description of Thracians, an ancient people connected to modern-day Bulgaria and parts of Greece. Xenophanes describes Thracians as having “blue eyes and bright-red” or “ruddy” hair.

The Impact of Xenophanes’ Account

Xenophanes’ account indicates that at least some ancient Greeks were aware of red-haired individuals living beyond their own borders. While it does not provide concrete evidence for the prevalence of red hair within Greece itself, it does suggest that red hair was not entirely unheard of.

Archaeological Evidence

In addition to ancient texts, archaeological findings can shed light on the prevalence of red hair in ancient Greece. Excavations have uncovered numerous ancient statues and pottery depicting individuals with various hair colors, including shades that appear reddish-brown.

One famous example is the “Peplos Kore,” a statue from the Acropolis Museum in Athens. This statue depicts a young woman with reddish-brown hair, suggesting that this hair color was indeed present in ancient Greece.

The Influence of Migration

It’s important to note that ancient Greece was not a homogenous society. Over time, various waves of migration and conquest brought people from different regions into contact with the indigenous population. These migrations likely introduced new genetic traits, including red hair.

The Celtic Connection

During the late Bronze Age and early Iron Age, Celtic tribes began migrating into parts of Greece. The Celts were known for their fair skin and red hair, which might have influenced the local population’s genetic makeup.


While direct evidence is scarce, it is plausible to assume that red hair was not entirely uncommon among the ancient Greeks. The mention of Thracians with red-haired individuals by Xenophanes and depictions in art suggest that there were at least some red-haired individuals within ancient Greek society.

As with any historical inquiry, our understanding is limited by the available evidence. Nevertheless, it is fascinating to explore how physical traits like red hair can provide insight into past cultures and their interactions.