Were There Atheist in Ancient Times?

Were There Atheists in Ancient Times?

It’s a common misconception that atheism is a modern phenomenon. Many people believe that the idea of rejecting the existence of gods is a product of the Enlightenment era. However, history tells us that atheism has been around for centuries, even in ancient times.

The Roots of Atheism

The earliest known expression of atheistic ideas can be traced back to ancient India. The Carvaka school of philosophy, which flourished in the 6th century BCE, rejected the existence of gods and advocated for materialism and skepticism.

Atheistic beliefs were also present in ancient Greece. Protagoras, a philosopher from the 5th century BCE, famously stated that “man is the measure of all things,” implying that there are no absolute truths or gods to dictate morality.

Atheism in Ancient Rome

Atheistic ideas were not limited to ancient India and Greece. The Roman Empire was known for its religious tolerance, but that doesn’t mean that everyone was religious. In fact, some Romans rejected traditional Roman gods and goddesses altogether.

One such example is Lucius Annaeus Seneca, a Stoic philosopher who lived in Rome during the 1st century CE. Seneca believed in a higher power but rejected traditional religious practices and rituals.

The Rise of Christianity

As Christianity began to spread throughout the Roman Empire, it became increasingly difficult for atheists to openly express their beliefs. In 380 CE, Emperor Theodosius I declared Christianity as the official religion of Rome, making it illegal to practice any other religion or belief system.

Despite this suppression, there were still individuals who rejected Christianity and other religions. Hypatia of Alexandria was a renowned scientist and philosopher who lived in the 4th century CE. She was also an outspoken atheist and criticized religious beliefs as irrational.

Atheism Today

Today, atheism is more widespread than ever before. According to a 2018 survey by the Pew Research Center, about 10% of the world’s population identifies as atheist. However, there are still many places where atheism is stigmatized or even illegal.

It’s important to remember that atheism is not a new concept. People have been questioning the existence of gods for thousands of years. As society continues to evolve, it’s likely that we will see even more diversity in religious and non-religious beliefs.


Atheism has been a part of human history since ancient times. From the Carvaka school in India to Hypatia of Alexandria in Rome, there have always been individuals who rejected traditional religious beliefs and practices.

While atheism was suppressed during certain periods of history, it has become increasingly accepted in modern times. As we continue to explore different ideas and perspectives, it’s important to remember that diversity in beliefs is what makes us human.