Were There Dice in Ancient Greece?

Did the ancient Greeks use dice? This is a question that has fascinated historians and archaeologists for centuries.

While dice games were popular in many ancient civilizations, such as ancient Egypt and Rome, there is some debate as to whether dice were used in ancient Greece. Let’s delve into the evidence and explore this intriguing topic.

Ancient Greek Games

The ancient Greeks were known for their love of sports and games. They enjoyed a wide variety of physical activities, including running, wrestling, and discus throwing. However, when it comes to board games or games of chance, the evidence is less clear.

Dice in Ancient Egypt

Before we discuss whether the Greeks used dice, it’s worth mentioning that dice games were already popular in other civilizations at the time. Ancient Egypt, for example, had a game called “Senet” which involved throwing sticks or knucklebones to determine movement on a game board.

No Dice Found in Greek Archaeological Sites

Despite extensive archaeological excavations throughout Greece, no dice have been found to date. This absence of physical evidence has led some historians to believe that dice may not have been used in ancient Greece.

Theories on Greek Gambling

While there may be no physical evidence of dice, there are references to gambling in ancient Greek literature. The poet Homer mentions a game called “kubos,” which involved throwing small objects onto a table. However, it is unclear what these objects were.

Some scholars speculate that these objects could have been small stones or shells rather than traditional six-sided dice. Others suggest that they may have used astragali bone – the ankle bones of sheep or goats – which were commonly used as dice in other cultures.

The Role of Astragali in Ancient Greece

Astragali bones were indeed used in ancient Greece for divination purposes. These bones were marked on four sides with different symbols and were thrown to predict future events. However, whether they were also used for gaming is still a matter of debate.

The Absence of Greek Dice Games

Another argument against the use of dice in ancient Greece is the lack of Greek words or descriptions specifically related to dice games. Unlike other cultures, such as the Romans, who had games like “Tesserae” and “Tali,” there is no evidence of similar games in ancient Greek texts.

In Conclusion

While the use of dice in ancient Greece remains uncertain, it is clear that the Greeks enjoyed various forms of physical competition and may have engaged in some form of gambling. Whether they used traditional dice or other objects for gaming purposes is a question that will continue to intrigue scholars and historians.


  • Smithsonian Magazine – “Gambling with Dice in Ancient Rome”
  • Ancient History Encyclopedia – “Ancient Greek Board Games”
  • British Museum – “Senet: The Ancient Egyptian Board Game”