What Ancient Civilization Lived in Argentina?

Argentina, a beautiful country in South America, is known for its diverse culture and rich history. One of the most interesting aspects of Argentina’s history is the ancient civilization that once lived there. In this article, we will explore the fascinating world of the ancient civilization that lived in Argentina.

The Diaguita Civilization

The Diaguita civilization is one of the oldest civilizations that lived in Argentina. They were a group of indigenous people who inhabited parts of Northwestern Argentina from the 10th century until the Spanish conquered their land in the 16th century.

Location and Landscape

The Diaguita civilization was located in Northwestern Argentina, specifically in the provinces of Catamarca, La Rioja, Salta, Tucuman and San Juan. The area where they lived was characterized by a rugged terrain with mountains, valleys, and arid plains.

Social Structure

The Diaguita society was highly organized and hierarchical. They were divided into different social classes such as nobles, commoners, and slaves. The nobles held the highest position in society and were responsible for political decisions and religious ceremonies.


The Diaguitas were polytheistic and believed in many gods who controlled different aspects of their lives such as agriculture, hunting, and fertility. They also believed that after death their souls went to live with their ancestors.


The Diaguitas were known for their unique art style which included pottery, textiles, metalwork, and rock art. Their pottery was decorated with intricate geometric designs that are still admired today for their beauty.

The Inca Empire

Another ancient civilization that lived in Argentina was the Inca Empire. The Incas were a powerful empire that ruled over much of South America from the 13th century until the Spanish conquest in the 16th century.

The Incas were located in the Andes mountains, which spanned across many countries including Argentina, Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Chile. The Andes provided a challenging terrain with high peaks and deep valleys.

The Inca society was highly organized and hierarchical. They had an emperor who held supreme power and was considered a deity. The emperor was supported by a class of nobles who helped him govern the empire.

The Incas believed in many gods who controlled different aspects of their lives such as agriculture, weather, and fertility. They also believed in ancestor worship and mummified their dead rulers to preserve their bodies for future generations.

The Incas were known for their impressive architecture which included buildings constructed from massive stones that fit together perfectly without mortar. They also created intricate textiles using a technique called backstrap weaving.

  • In conclusion, Argentina has a rich history that includes many ancient civilizations such as the Diaguita and Inca Empires. These civilizations left behind impressive art, architecture, and cultural practices that are still admired today.
  • If you ever get the chance to visit Argentina, make sure to explore these ancient sites to learn more about these fascinating civilizations.