What Ancient Civilization Used the Mediterranean Sea?

The Mediterranean Sea has been a vital waterway for trade and commerce for thousands of years. Many ancient civilizations thrived along its shores, using the sea as a means of transportation and exchange of goods. Some of the most prominent ancient civilizations that used the Mediterranean Sea are discussed below.


The Phoenicians were an ancient civilization that emerged around 1500 BCE in the eastern Mediterranean region. They were renowned for their seafaring skills and established colonies along the Mediterranean coastlines, including present-day Lebanon, Syria, and Israel.

The Phoenicians built ships that could travel long distances and transport goods such as cedar wood, textiles, glassware, and metalwork. They also developed an extensive trade network that connected them to other civilizations around the Mediterranean.


The Greeks were another ancient civilization that relied heavily on the Mediterranean Sea for trade and commerce. The Greeks established colonies throughout the region, including in modern-day Italy, Spain, and Turkey.

Greek ships were equipped with sails and oars, allowing them to navigate through different weather conditions. The Greeks also developed a strong navy that protected their trading routes from piracy.


The Romans were one of the largest empires in history, encompassing much of Europe and parts of Africa and Asia. The Roman Empire was heavily dependent on maritime trade, with the Mediterranean Sea serving as its primary transportation route.

Roman ships were designed to transport large quantities of goods such as grain, olive oil, wine, and luxury items like silk and spices. The Romans also constructed lighthouses along their coastlines to aid navigation for their ships.


In conclusion, many ancient civilizations used the Mediterranean Sea as a means of transportation and exchange of goods. The Phoenicians pioneered seafaring skills while the Greeks developed an extensive network of colonies and a strong navy for protection.

The Romans, on the other hand, relied heavily on maritime trade to sustain their vast empire. Today, the legacy of these civilizations can still be seen in the numerous archaeological sites and artifacts discovered along the Mediterranean coastlines.