What Ancient Civilization Was in Peru?

Peru is a country that is rich in history and culture. One of the most interesting aspects of Peruvian history is its ancient civilization. The ancient civilization that existed in Peru was known as the Inca Empire, which was one of the largest and most powerful empires in the world during its time.

What Was the Inca Empire?

The Inca Empire was a pre-Columbian civilization that existed in what is now known as Peru from the early 13th century until the Spanish conquest in the 16th century. The empire was known for its advanced agricultural techniques, impressive architecture, and intricate social structure.

The Rise of the Inca Empire

The Inca Empire began as a small tribe known as the Incas, who lived in the Cusco region of Peru. Over time, they expanded their territory through military conquest and diplomacy to form a vast empire that stretched from modern-day Colombia to Chile.

The Inca Society

The Inca society was highly organized and hierarchical. At the top of society was the emperor, who was considered divine and had absolute power over his subjects. Below him were nobles, priests, and warriors who held positions of power and privilege.

At the bottom of society were commoners who worked as farmers, artisans, or laborers. Despite their lower status, commoners were still able to participate in religious ceremonies and festivals.


Religion played an important role in Inca society. The Incas worshipped many gods but believed that Inti, the sun god, was their most important deity. They also believed that their emperors were descended from Inti.

In addition to worshipping their gods, the Incas also practiced ancestor worship. They believed that their ancestors continued to play a role in their lives even after death.


The Incas were known for their impressive architecture, which included massive stone structures such as Machu Picchu and Sacsayhuaman. They also built extensive road networks and irrigation systems that allowed them to cultivate crops in the Andean mountains.

The Spanish Conquest

Despite their power and wealth, the Inca Empire was ultimately conquered by the Spanish in the 16th century. The Spanish brought with them diseases that decimated the Inca population, as well as superior weapons and technology.

Today, the Inca Empire is remembered as one of the most impressive civilizations in world history. Its legacy can be seen in modern-day Peru through its architecture, art, and cultural traditions.

  • Conclusion:

In conclusion, the Inca Empire was an impressive civilization that existed in Peru from the early 13th century until the Spanish conquest in the 16th century. Despite its ultimate defeat at the hands of the Spanish, its legacy can still be seen in modern-day Peru.