What Ancient Civilization Was in Russia?

Russia is a vast country with a rich and diverse history that spans thousands of years. From the Paleolithic era to modern times, many civilizations have called Russia home. One of the most intriguing and mysterious civilizations that once existed in Russia is the Scythians.

The Scythians were nomadic tribes that roamed the Eurasian steppe from the 8th to the 3rd century BCE. They were known for their horseback riding skills, fierce warrior culture, and unique artistic style. The Scythians are considered one of the most influential cultures in ancient Russia due to their significant impact on art, language, and lifestyle.

The Origin of Scythians
The origin of the Scythians is still a subject of debate among historians and archaeologists. Some believe that they were indigenous to Russia, while others argue that they migrated from Central Asia. According to Herodotus, an ancient Greek historian, the Scythians originally came from a region near the Black Sea.

The Scythians were skilled horsemen who used their horses for transportation, warfare, and hunting. They were known for their distinctive saddle design and mounted archery techniques, which they used in battles against other nomadic tribes and sedentary civilizations such as Persia.

The Culture of Scythians
The culture of the Scythians was heavily influenced by their nomadic lifestyle. They had no permanent settlements but instead lived in portable tents made from animal skins called yurts. These yurts could be easily dismantled and moved from place to place depending on the seasons or hunting opportunities.

The Scythians were also known for their unique art style, which was characterized by intricate animal motifs such as deer, horses, and birds. They used these motifs in their metalwork, pottery, textiles, and even tattoos.

The Legacy of Scythians

Although the Scythians disappeared from history around the 3rd century BCE, their legacy still lives on in modern Russia. The Scythians were an important influence on later nomadic tribes such as the Sarmatians and Huns, who continued to roam the steppes of Russia for centuries.

The Scythian art style also influenced later civilizations such as the Greeks and Romans, who adopted many of their motifs and techniques in their own artwork. Today, many museums in Russia display artifacts from the Scythian era, providing a glimpse into this enigmatic civilization.


The Scythians were one of the most fascinating ancient civilizations that once existed in Russia. Their nomadic lifestyle, fierce warrior culture, and unique art style have left a lasting impact on Russian history and culture. While much about them remains a mystery, their legacy continues to inspire and intrigue people today.