What Ancient Civilization Was in the Middle East?

The Middle East is known for being one of the cradles of civilization. Several ancient civilizations thrived in this region, shaping its history and culture. However, one civilization that stands out is the Mesopotamian civilization.

Mesopotamia, which means “land between rivers,” was located in the eastern Mediterranean region, mainly between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. This area includes modern-day Iraq, Kuwait, and parts of Syria, Turkey, and Iran.

The Mesopotamian Civilization

The Mesopotamian civilization is considered the first civilization in world history. It emerged around 4000 BCE and lasted until 539 BCE when it was conquered by the Persians. The Mesopotamian civilization was made up of different city-states that were ruled by kings.


The Mesopotamians made significant contributions to human society in various fields such as agriculture, architecture, mathematics, astronomy, and literature. For example:

Agriculture: The Mesopotamians developed irrigation systems that helped them grow crops efficiently despite living in an arid region.

Architecture: The ancient Mesopotamians built impressive structures like ziggurats (massive stepped pyramids) and temples.

Mathematics: They invented a number system based on 60 (sexagesimal system), which we still use today to measure time (60 seconds in a minute).

Astronomy: The Mesopotamians observed the sky regularly and recorded their findings on cuneiform tablets. They also developed a lunar calendar.

Literature: One of the most famous works of ancient Mesopotamian literature is the Epic of Gilgamesh – one of the earliest known works of epic poetry.

The Legacy

The legacy of the Mesopotamian civilization is still very much present today. Many of their inventions and discoveries laid the foundation for future civilizations and cultures. For example:

Writing: The Mesopotamians invented cuneiform writing, which was one of the earliest forms of writing in human history.

Religion: The Mesopotamians had a complex polytheistic religion, which influenced later religions like Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

Governance: The Mesopotamians developed a system of government that included laws and regulations – some of which are still relevant today.

  • For example, they had the Code of Hammurabi – one of the earliest known legal codes in human history.


In conclusion, the Mesopotamian civilization was one of the most important ancient civilizations that emerged in the Middle East. Their achievements in various fields have been crucial to shaping our modern world. From their contributions to agriculture and architecture to mathematics and literature, we owe so much to this ancient civilization.