What Ancient Civilization Was in Turkey?

Turkey is a country with a rich history and cultural heritage. It has been home to many ancient civilizations, each leaving behind its own unique imprint on the land. One of the most prominent and well-known ancient civilizations in Turkey is the Hittite civilization.

The Hittites were an Indo-European people who settled in central Anatolia around 1600 BC. They established a powerful empire that lasted for over 500 years and left behind an impressive legacy in architecture, art, and literature.

The Rise of the Hittite Civilization

The Hittite civilization emerged during a time of great upheaval in the Near East. The collapse of the Old Babylonian Empire had created a power vacuum, which allowed for new states to emerge. The Hittites took advantage of this situation and established themselves as a major power in the region.

Under King Hattusili I, the Hittites expanded their territory through military conquests and established their capital at Hattusa. The city was strategically located on high ground, making it difficult for enemies to attack. It was also surrounded by imposing walls and fortifications that made it virtually impregnable.

Hittite Culture

The Hittites were known for their advanced culture, which included art, literature, and science. They developed a system of writing called cuneiform that was used for both administrative purposes as well as literature.

Hittite art was characterized by its naturalistic style and attention to detail. They created impressive sculptures that depicted gods, kings, and other important figures in their society.

In terms of religion, the Hittites were polytheistic and worshiped many gods. They believed that their gods controlled all aspects of life and often made offerings to them in order to gain their favor.

The Fall of the Hittite Civilization

Despite their impressive accomplishments, the Hittites eventually fell to the invading Sea Peoples. The exact reasons for their decline are still debated by historians, but it is believed that a combination of factors including internal strife, political instability, and external pressures all contributed to their downfall.

Today, the legacy of the Hittite civilization lives on through the many archaeological sites scattered throughout Turkey. Visitors can explore the ruins of Hattusa and other important Hittite cities, marveling at the impressive architecture and artwork that still remains.


The Hittite civilization was a major force in the ancient Near East and left behind an impressive legacy that is still felt today. Their advanced culture and military might made them one of the most influential civilizations of their time, and their contributions to art, literature, and science continue to inspire people to this day.