What Ancient Civilization Were in Europe?

Europe is a continent rich in history and culture. Throughout the ages, many civilizations have risen and fallen, leaving behind their indelible marks on the land and its people. In this article, we will explore some of the most significant ancient civilizations that once thrived in Europe.

Ancient Greece

One of the most well-known ancient civilizations in Europe is Ancient Greece. Located in the southeastern part of Europe, Greece was a hub of cultural and intellectual activity from around 800 BCE to 146 BCE.

The Greeks made significant contributions to philosophy, science, literature, art, and politics. Some of the famous Greek philosophers include Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.

The Greeks also developed a unique system of government known as democracy. Athens was one of the most prominent city-states in Ancient Greece that practiced this form of governance.

Roman Empire

The Roman Empire was another important civilization that flourished in Europe from 27 BCE to 476 CE. It was one of the largest empires ever created and covered much of modern-day Europe as well as parts of Africa and Asia.

The Romans made significant contributions to architecture, engineering, law, language (Latin), art, religion (Christianity), and military tactics. They were also known for their impressive road systems and aqueducts.

Celtic Civilization

The Celtic Civilization was another ancient civilization that thrived in Europe during the Iron Age (around 800 BCE to 600 CE). The Celts were spread across much of Central Europe and were known for their unique language and culture.

They were skilled metalworkers and produced intricate designs on weapons such as swords and shields. The Celts were also experts in agriculture and had a strong tradition of storytelling.

Viking Culture

The Vikings were a seafaring people from Scandinavia who raided and traded across much of Northern Europe from the 8th to the 11th century AD. They were known for their fearsome reputation, but they also had a rich culture that included art, music, and storytelling.

The Vikings were skilled shipbuilders and navigators, which allowed them to travel long distances across the sea. They also had a unique system of governance known as the Thing, which was a form of democratic assembly.


Europe has a rich history of ancient civilizations that have left behind a lasting legacy. From Ancient Greece to the Vikings, each civilization had its unique contributions to art, science, philosophy, politics, and culture. By learning about these civilizations, we can gain a deeper understanding of our shared history and appreciate the diverse cultures that make up Europe today.


  • History.com Editors. “Ancient Greece.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 9 Nov. 2009.
  • “Roman Empire.” National Geographic Society.
  • Hall, Alaric.

    The Celts: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press.

  • Vikings: Raiders and Traders | BBC Teach.