Ancient Greece is widely regarded as one of the most influential civilizations in the history of Western civilization. The Greeks were renowned for their achievements in philosophy, art, literature, politics, and science. The civilization of Ancient Greece can be divided into three distinct periods or ages: the Archaic Age, the Classical Age, and the Hellenistic Age.
The Archaic Age (800-500 BCE)
The Archaic Age began in around 800 BCE and lasted until approximately 500 BCE. During this time, Greek society underwent significant changes that laid the foundation for later developments.
The Greeks developed new forms of government, such as oligarchies and democracies, and established colonies throughout the Mediterranean region. They also began to create impressive works of art and literature that would continue to influence Western culture for centuries to come.
One of the most notable events of the Archaic Age was the First Olympic Games, which were held in 776 BCE. The Games were held every four years in Olympia and featured athletic competitions such as running, jumping, throwing, and wrestling. The Games became a symbol of Greek unity and pride.
The Classical Age (500-323 BCE)
The Classical Age is considered by many historians to be the pinnacle of Ancient Greek civilization. This period began with the defeat of Persia at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BCE and ended with Alexander the Great’s death in 323 BCE.
During this time, Athens emerged as a major power within Greece. The Athenian democracy was created during this period under Pericles’ leadership. Many famous philosophers lived during this time such as Socrates, Plato and Aristotle who still influence modern philosophy today.
The great works of literature produced during this period still resonate with readers today as well including Aeschylus’ Oresteia trilogy and Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex trilogy.
The Hellenistic Age (323-31 BCE)
The Hellenistic Age was a period of significant change for Ancient Greece. It began with Alexander the Great’s conquest of Persia in 323 BCE and ended with the Roman conquest of Greece in 31 BCE. During this time, Greek culture spread throughout the Mediterranean region and beyond.
The Hellenistic Age saw the rise of new philosophical schools such as Epicureanism and Stoicism. The Greeks also made significant advancements in science, mathematics, and astronomy during this time.
One of the most notable achievements of the Hellenistic Age was the creation of the Library of Alexandria. The Library was one of the largest and most important libraries in the ancient world and housed thousands of works by Greek, Egyptian, and Persian scholars.
In conclusion, Ancient Greece can be divided into three distinct periods or ages: the Archaic Age, the Classical Age, and the Hellenistic Age. Each age was characterized by significant changes that contributed to Greek society’s overall development. From art to philosophy to politics, Ancient Greece’s influence can still be felt today.