In ancient Greece, columns were an essential component of architecture. They were used in various buildings such as temples, public buildings, and private homes. The Greeks developed three types of columns – Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian – each with its unique characteristics and proportions.
The Doric column is the oldest and simplest of the three types. It has a plain capital at the top and no base at the bottom.
The shaft is fluted with twenty grooves that run vertically from top to bottom. The Doric column is known for its strength and masculinity.
The entablature is the structure that sits on top of the columns. It consists of three parts – architrave, frieze, and cornice.
- The architrave is the lowest part of the entablature.
- The frieze is located above the architrave.
- The cornice is located at the top of the entablature.
The Ionic column was developed later than the Doric column and has a more slender appearance. It has a base at the bottom, which gives it a more graceful look. The capital at the top of an Ionic column has two scrolls called volutes.
The entablature of an Ionic column is more decorative than that of a Doric column. It still consists of three parts – architrave, frieze, and cornice – but they are more elaborately decorated.
The Corinthian column was developed last and is considered to be the most ornate of all three types. It has a base like an Ionic column but instead of scrolls at the top, it has intricate acanthus leaves.
The entablature of a Corinthian column is even more decorative than that of an Ionic column. It still consists of three parts – architrave, frieze, and cornice – but they are much more elaborate.
In conclusion, the columns of ancient Greece played a significant role in their architecture. The three types of columns – Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian – each have their unique characteristics and proportions.
The entablature also played an important role in the overall design of the buildings. By understanding the different types of columns and their components, we can appreciate the beauty and elegance of ancient Greek architecture.