What Are the Social Classes in Ancient Greece?

In ancient Greece, society was divided into distinct social classes. These classes determined a person’s status, power, and opportunities within the community. Let’s explore the different social classes in ancient Greece:


The aristocrats, also known as the nobility or the upper class, occupied the highest position in ancient Greek society. They were born into wealth and privilege and enjoyed significant political influence.

Aristocrats owned large estates and controlled vast amounts of land. They held important positions in government and had access to the best education.

Free Citizens

Below the aristocrats were the free citizens. This class consisted of small landowners, merchants, artisans, and skilled workers. Free citizens had political rights and could participate in the democratic process of decision-making in their city-state.

Within this class existed further subdivisions:


The eupatridae were aristocratic families who were not part of the highest elite but still held considerable influence due to their noble lineage.


Metics were foreign-born individuals who resided permanently in a Greek city-state but were not considered citizens. Although they had limited political rights, they contributed to society through trade and craftsmanship.


At the bottom of ancient Greek society were slaves. Slavery was prevalent during this time period, with slaves being considered property rather than members of society. Slaves were acquired through various means such as war or as a result of being born into slavery.

  • Household Slaves: These slaves worked within households as domestic servants performing tasks such as cooking, cleaning, and childcare.
  • Agricultural Slaves: Agricultural slaves worked on the land, performing labor-intensive tasks such as farming and tending to livestock.
  • Skilled Slaves: Some slaves possessed specialized skills and were employed in areas such as medicine, education, or art.

Slavery was an integral part of the ancient Greek economy and society, with slaves being considered property rather than individuals with rights.

In conclusion, ancient Greek society was divided into distinct social classes. The aristocrats held the highest position, followed by free citizens who enjoyed political rights.

Slavery was prevalent, with slaves making up the lowest class in society. Understanding these social classes helps us gain insights into the dynamics and structure of ancient Greek civilization.