What Crops Were Farmed in Ancient Greece?

Ancient Greece, known for its rich cultural heritage and contributions to various fields, also had a well-established agricultural sector. The fertile land and favorable climate of this region made it ideal for farming and cultivating a variety of crops. In this article, we will explore the crops that were farmed in Ancient Greece.

1. Wheat:
One of the staple crops in Ancient Greece was wheat.

Wheat was grown extensively and formed the basis of their diet. It was used to make bread, which was a common food item consumed by both the rich and the poor.

2. Barley:
Barley was another important crop cultivated in Ancient Greece.

It was used for making porridge, soups, and even beer. Barley was considered a nutritious grain that provided energy to the farmers and workers.

3. Olives:
The olive tree held great significance in Ancient Greece, not only for its fruit but also for its oil. Olives were cultivated for their oil, which was used for cooking, lighting lamps, and as an essential ingredient in various medicinal preparations.

4. Grapes:
Grapes were extensively grown in Ancient Greece for winemaking purposes. Greek wine was renowned throughout the ancient world, and vineyards were an integral part of their agricultural landscape.

5. Figs:
Figs were another popular fruit cultivated by ancient Greeks. They were consumed both fresh and dried and were often used as sweeteners or added to dishes to enhance their flavor.


1. Lentils:
Lentils were widely cultivated in Ancient Greece due to their nutritional value and ease of cultivation. They served as an important source of protein for the Greeks.

2. Onions:
Onions were grown extensively as they could be preserved for a long time without spoiling. They were used in various dishes and also had medicinal properties.

3. Cabbage:
Cabbage was a common vegetable grown in Ancient Greece. It was consumed both raw and cooked and was valued for its high nutritional content.

  • Herbs and Spices:

    • Parsley
    • Thyme
    • Oregano
    • Mint

The Importance of Agriculture in Ancient Greece

Agriculture played a crucial role in the ancient Greek economy and society. It not only provided food for the population but also contributed to trade and commerce. The surplus crops were often traded with other regions, enabling the Greeks to acquire goods that were not locally available.

In conclusion, Ancient Greece had a diverse range of crops that were cultivated for sustenance, trade, and cultural significance. Wheat, barley, olives, grapes, figs, lentils, onions, cabbage, and various herbs and spices were some of the key crops grown during this time. The agricultural practices of Ancient Greece laid the foundation for their civilization’s prosperity and cultural development.