What Describes Ancient Sumerian Civilization?

Ancient Sumerian Civilization: A Glimpse into the World’s First Civilization

The ancient Sumerians are credited with being one of the first civilizations in the world. They lived in Mesopotamia, which is modern-day Iraq, around 4000 BCE.

Their civilization was characterized by a complex social structure, advanced technology, and a rich cultural heritage. Here is an in-depth look at what describes this fascinating civilization.

Social Structure

The Sumerians had a complex social structure that was divided into different classes. At the top were the rulers and priests who controlled the temples and cities.

The middle class consisted of merchants, farmers, and craftsmen who provided goods and services to the upper class. The lower class consisted of slaves who worked for their masters and had no rights.

Advanced Technology

The Sumerians were known for their advanced technology which included inventions such as the wheel, plow, and irrigation system. They also developed a system of writing called cuneiform which was used to record important information such as laws, trade agreements, and religious texts.


The Sumerians had a rich cultural heritage which included art, literature, music, and religion. They built impressive structures such as ziggurats which were multi-tiered temples dedicated to their gods. They also created beautiful works of art such as jewelry, pottery, and sculptures.

Religion played an important role in Sumerian culture. They believed in many gods and goddesses who controlled different aspects of life such as fertility, agriculture, war, and wisdom. They also believed in an afterlife where the soul would journey to the underworld.


In summary, the ancient Sumerian civilization was characterized by a complex social structure, advanced technology, and a rich cultural heritage that has influenced many civilizations that followed. Their legacy lives on through their inventions such as cuneiform writing and their impressive structures such as ziggurats. The Sumerians were truly a remarkable civilization that deserves recognition for their contributions to human history.