What Did Bread Look Like in Ancient Greece?

Bread has been a staple food in many civilizations for thousands of years, and Ancient Greece was no exception. Bread was an essential part of the Greek diet, and it was consumed at almost every meal.

But what did bread look like in Ancient Greece? Let’s explore.

Wheat in Ancient Greece

Wheat was the most common grain used for making bread in Ancient Greece. The Greeks grew several varieties of wheat, including emmer and einkorn wheat. These ancient grains were different from the modern wheat we use today, as they had a tougher outer layer that needed to be removed before the grains could be milled into flour.

Baking Bread in Ancient Greece

The Greeks baked their bread in communal ovens, which were usually located outside of the home. These ovens were shared by several families in a neighborhood and were heated using wood or dried dung.

To make bread, the Greeks mixed flour with water and kneaded it into dough. They then shaped the dough into loaves and let it rise before baking it in the communal oven.

The Different Types of Bread

In Ancient Greece, there were several different types of bread available depending on one’s social status. The most basic type of bread was made from barley flour and was consumed by the poor. Wealthier Greeks would consume white bread made from wheat flour.

There were also special types of bread known as “sacred loaves.” These loaves were made from specially prepared grains and were used in religious ceremonies and festivals.


One common type of bread that is still popular today is flatbread. In Ancient Greece, flatbread was known as “plakous” or “plakountos.” This bread was usually made from barley or spelt flour and was cooked on a hot griddle or stone.

Flatbread was a popular food among the poor as it was cheap and easy to make. It was also a staple food for soldiers who needed a portable and durable source of sustenance.

Round Bread

Another type of bread that was commonly consumed in Ancient Greece was round bread, known as “artos.” This bread was made from wheat flour and had a slightly sweet taste. It was often used in religious ceremonies and was considered a symbol of prosperity.

The Importance of Bread in Ancient Greece

Bread played an essential role in the Greek diet, providing much-needed carbohydrates for energy. It was also an important part of religious ceremonies and festivals.

Bread-making was not just a practical skill but also an art form, with bakers competing to create the most beautiful and delicious loaves.


In conclusion, bread in Ancient Greece came in many shapes and forms. From basic barley loaves to elaborate sacred loaves, bread played an essential role in Greek society. Whether consumed by the rich or the poor, bread provided sustenance and nourishment for all.