What Did Slaves Do in Ancient Greece and Rome?

Slavery was a deeply entrenched institution in both Ancient Greece and Rome. Slaves played a crucial role in the functioning of these societies, performing a wide range of tasks across various sectors. Let’s explore what slaves did in Ancient Greece and Rome.

Ancient Greece

In Ancient Greece, slavery was an integral part of society. Slaves were owned by individuals, households, or even the state. They performed diverse roles depending on their skills and abilities.

Domestic Work

  • Household Chores: Slaves were responsible for carrying out household chores such as cleaning, cooking, and washing clothes.
  • Nursing and Childcare: Female slaves often served as wet nurses or nannies for children from wealthy families.


  • Farm Labor: Slaves worked on farms, cultivating crops and tending to livestock.

Mines and Quarries

  • Mining: Slaves toiled in mines, extracting valuable minerals like silver and lead.
  • Quarrying: They also worked in quarries, cutting stones for construction purposes.

Sports and Entertainment

  • Athletic Training: Some slaves became skilled trainers who prepared athletes for various sporting events, including the Olympic Games.
  • Performing Arts: Talented slaves entertained the public by performing music, dance, or acting in theaters.

Ancient Rome

Slavery in Ancient Rome was even more pervasive than in Greece. Slaves were considered property and were owned by both individuals and the state. They performed a wide array of tasks across different sectors.

Household Management

  • Personal Servants: Slaves served as personal attendants to their owners, performing tasks such as dressing, bathing, and accompanying them in public.
  • Estate Managers: Trusted slaves were assigned managerial roles, overseeing the daily operations of large households or estates.


  • Farm Work: Slaves worked on farms, cultivating crops like wheat and olives, as well as tending to livestock.
  • Vineyards: Many slaves were employed in vineyards, involved in grape cultivation and wine production.


  • Builders and Craftsmen: Skilled slaves worked in construction projects, including the erection of buildings and infrastructure.

Glorified Roles

  • Tutors: Educated slaves served as tutors for children from affluent families, teaching them subjects like literature, philosophy, and mathematics.
  • Scribes: Some literate slaves worked as scribes, assisting with administrative tasks such as record-keeping and correspondence.

The roles performed by slaves in both Ancient Greece and Rome were diverse and essential for the functioning of these societies. It is important to acknowledge their significant contributions while recognizing the inherent injustice of their enslavement.

In conclusion, slavery was deeply rooted in the fabric of Ancient Greek and Roman societies. Slaves were involved in various aspects of daily life, from domestic work to agriculture, construction, and even education. Understanding their roles helps us unravel the complex dynamics of these ancient civilizations.