What Did the Summer Solstice Coincide With in Ancient Times?

The summer solstice is the longest day of the year in terms of daylight hours, occurring around June 20th or 21st in the Northern Hemisphere. It has been observed and celebrated for thousands of years by various cultures around the world.

But what did this celestial event coincide with in ancient times? Let’s explore some of the historical significance of the summer solstice.

The Ancient Egyptians

The ancient Egyptians were known for their advanced knowledge of astronomy and their use of it in their religious beliefs. They believed that the sun was a god named Ra, and that on the day of the summer solstice, Ra was at his most powerful. They would celebrate this by holding festivals and performing rituals to honor Ra and ensure his continued protection over them.

The Ancient Greeks

The ancient Greeks also celebrated the summer solstice, but for a different reason. They associated this time with their god Apollo, who was known as a sun god and a god of music, poetry, and prophecy. They held festivals called “Kronia” to honor Apollo and other deities, which included singing, dancing, feasting, and athletic competitions.

The Mayans

The Mayans were another culture that placed great importance on astronomy and celestial events. They built elaborate structures such as Chichen Itza that aligned with the movements of the sun during solstices and equinoxes. During the summer solstice, they would perform rituals to ask for rain to nourish their crops during the dry season.

The Druids

The Druids were a group of Celtic priests who lived in Britain and Gaul (modern-day France) during ancient times. They believed that on the day of the summer solstice, there was an increase in supernatural activity and that it was easier to communicate with spirits. They would light bonfires on hilltops to honor the sun and offer sacrifices to the gods.

The Chinese

In China, the summer solstice was associated with yin, the feminine principle of darkness and earth. It was believed that on this day, yin would begin to grow stronger as the days started to become shorter. They would eat special foods such as eggs and garlic to promote good health and ward off evil spirits.


The summer solstice has played a significant role in many cultures throughout history. From honoring sun gods to asking for bountiful harvests, people have found ways to celebrate this celestial event in their own unique ways. Today, we may not hold the same beliefs as our ancestors, but we can still appreciate the beauty and wonder of this natural phenomenon.