What Do We Call Ancient Times?

In history, the period before the Middle Ages is often referred to as “ancient times”. It covers a vast span of time, stretching from the emergence of human civilization around 3000 BCE to the fall of the Roman Empire in 476 CE. This era saw the development of great civilizations such as Egypt, Greece, and Rome, as well as significant advancements in science, philosophy, and art.

The Early Period

The earliest known human civilizations emerged in ancient Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) and Egypt around 3000 BCE. These societies were based on agriculture and trade, and they developed complex political structures with kings and priests. The Egyptians built massive pyramids as tombs for their pharaohs, while the Mesopotamians created intricate systems of irrigation to cultivate crops.

The Classical Period

Around 500 BCE, a new era began in ancient times with the rise of Greek civilization. The Greeks made great contributions to philosophy, mathematics, science, and art.

They also developed a system of democracy that would later inspire many modern governments. The Greeks were followed by the Romans who built an empire that spanned much of Europe and parts of Africa and Asia.

The End of Ancient Times

The end of ancient times is marked by various events depending on different regions. In Europe and North Africa, it was marked by the fall of Rome in 476 CE which led to a period widely known as “the Dark Ages”.

In China, it was marked by the emergence of several powerful dynasties such as Tang (618–907) and Song (960–1279). In India, it was marked by the Gupta Empire (320-550 CE), which was known for its advances in mathematics.


Ancient times represent an important period in human history when many great civilizations emerged. It was a time of great accomplishments in science, philosophy, and art that still influence modern societies. While the specific dates and events may vary depending on the region, ancient times generally refer to the period before the Middle Ages.