What Does Rome Mean in World History?

Rome, the eternal city, has been a symbol of power, civilization, and culture for over 2,500 years. Its impact on the world is undeniable and continues to influence modern society in various ways. Rome has left behind a legacy that is still celebrated today in art, architecture, politics, and religion.

The Rise of Rome

Rome was founded in 753 BC by two brothers named Romulus and Remus. According to legend, they were raised by a she-wolf and went on to found the city on seven hills along the Tiber River. Rome grew from a small village into a powerful empire that spanned three continents.

The Roman Republic

The Roman Republic was established in 509 BC after the overthrow of the Etruscan monarchy. The Republic was based on a system of checks and balances with two consuls elected each year to serve as the executive branch. The Senate served as the legislative branch while assemblies represented the people.

The Roman Empire

In 27 BC, Julius Caesar’s adopted son Octavian became Emperor Augustus and established the Roman Empire. The empire lasted for over 400 years and expanded its territories through conquests in Europe, Africa, and Asia.


One of Rome’s most significant contributions to world history is its architecture. The Romans were master builders who created monumental structures such as aqueducts, amphitheaters like the Colosseum, public baths like Caracalla’s Baths and palaces like Palatine Hill.

  • Aqueducts: These structures brought water from distant sources into cities.
  • Amphitheaters: These large open-air venues were used for entertainment such as gladiatorial contests.
  • Public Baths: These were large complexes with hot baths, cold baths, and saunas.
  • Palaces: These were homes for the wealthy and powerful.

Ancient Rome’s Influence on Modern Society

Rome’s legacy has had a lasting impact on modern society, particularly in language, law, and religion.


The Latin language was the official language of the Roman Empire and has had a significant impact on modern languages, particularly Romance languages such as Spanish, French, Italian, and Portuguese.


Roman law has had a significant influence on modern legal systems. The concept of innocent until proven guilty, judges presiding over trials, and the right to appeal verdicts all stem from Roman law.


Christianity emerged in Rome during the 1st century AD and became the dominant religion of the empire by the 4th century AD. The Roman Catholic Church has had a profound influence on Western civilization.

The Fall of Rome

The decline of Rome began in the 3rd century AD due to economic instability, political corruption, invasion by barbarian tribes, and military overspending. The Western Roman Empire fell in 476 AD while its Eastern counterpart continued for another thousand years.

The Legacy of Rome Lives On

Despite its fall over a thousand years ago, Rome’s legacy continues to live on today. Its architecture still inspires awe and wonder among those who see it.

Its legal system continues to shape governments around the world. And its cultural contributions remain an essential part of global heritage.

In conclusion, Rome is more than just a city; it is an icon that represents power, civilization, culture and influence. Its contributions to world history are unparalleled and continue to inspire us today.