Ancient Greece is a period in history that has had a significant impact on the world we live in today. From philosophy to art, this era was filled with influential figures and groundbreaking ideas. Let’s take a closer look at what happened during Ancient Greece.
Geography and Early Civilization
Ancient Greece was located in southeastern Europe, surrounded by water on three sides – the Aegean Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The geography of this region played a significant role in shaping Greek culture and society.
The earliest civilization in Ancient Greece was the Minoan civilization on Crete. They were followed by the Mycenaeans who were known for their warrior culture. These two civilizations laid the foundation for later Greek culture.
The Dark Ages
The period between 1100 BCE and 800 BCE is known as the Dark Ages of Ancient Greece. This period saw a decline in population as well as trade and cultural activity. The only records we have from this time are oral traditions passed down through generations.
The Archaic Period
The Archaic Period of Ancient Greece saw a resurgence of population growth and cultural activity. It began around 800 BCE and lasted until about 480 BCE. This period saw significant advancements in art, architecture, literature, and politics.
Art and Architecture
The Archaic Period saw an emergence of new styles in art and architecture such as the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders of columns which are still used today. Sculptures also became more realistic during this time with emphasis being placed on naturalism.
The two most famous epic poems from Ancient Greece were written during this period – The Iliad by Homer which tells the story of Trojan War, and The Odyssey which tells the story of Odysseus’ journey home after the war.
Government and Politics
During this period, city-states emerged as the dominant form of government in Ancient Greece. Each city-state had its own government and laws. The most famous city-states were Athens and Sparta.
The Classical Period
The Classical Period of Ancient Greece began in 480 BCE and lasted until 323 BCE. This period saw some of the most significant achievements in art, literature, philosophy, and politics.
The Classical Period saw the emergence of some of the most famous philosophers in history such as Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. They explored topics such as ethics, metaphysics, politics, and epistemology.
The Peloponnesian War
This war was fought between Athens and Sparta from 431 BCE to 404 BCE. It was a long and brutal war that saw both sides suffer heavy losses. In the end, Sparta emerged victorious but their victory was short-lived.
The Hellenistic Period
This period began with Alexander the Great’s conquests in 323 BCE and lasted until 31 BCE when Egypt was conquered by Rome. During this time Greek culture spread throughout the world due to Alexander’s conquests.
Science and Mathematics
This period saw significant advancements in science and mathematics with figures such as Euclid who wrote Elements which is still used as a textbook today.
In conclusion, Ancient Greece was a time of great cultural achievements that still influence our world today. From art to philosophy to science, their contributions have stood the test of time.