What Is Ancient Civilization of Mesopotamia?

Mesopotamia, which means “the land between two rivers,” is an ancient civilization that existed in the region of present-day Iraq. It was one of the first civilizations in the world and is considered to be the cradle of civilization. Mesopotamia is known for its advancements in agriculture, writing, religion, and law.

Ancient Mesopotamian Cities

The Mesopotamian civilization had several cities, including Ur, Babylon, Nineveh, and Assyria. These cities were built near rivers such as the Tigris and Euphrates to take advantage of their fertile soil for farming. The Mesopotamians were known for their irrigation systems that allowed them to farm even during times of drought.

Writing System

One of the most significant contributions of Mesopotamia to human civilization is its writing system. The Mesopotamians developed a form of writing called cuneiform that used wedge-shaped characters impressed on clay tablets. This system was used for record-keeping, trade, and communication.


The ancient Mesopotamians were polytheistic and believed in several gods and goddesses who controlled different aspects of life such as fertility, war, and death. Some of the most important gods were Anu (god of heaven), Enlil (god of earth), and Marduk (god of Babylon).


The Mesopotamians also developed one of the earliest legal systems in the world. The Code of Hammurabi was a set of laws created by King Hammurabi that governed social behavior and commercial activities. It included laws related to marriage, divorce, property rights, slavery, theft, assault, and murder.


The legacy of Mesopotamia can still be seen in modern society. The Mesopotamians’ advancements in agriculture and irrigation systems have influenced modern farming techniques.

The cuneiform writing system paved the way for the development of alphabetic writing systems used today. The legal system developed by the Mesopotamians has also influenced modern legal systems.


In conclusion, Mesopotamia was an ancient civilization that made significant contributions to human civilization. Its cities, irrigation systems, writing system, religion, and law have had a lasting impact on modern society. The study of Mesopotamian civilization is essential to understanding the origins of human culture and society.