What Is Ancient Valley Civilization?

The Ancient Valley Civilization, also known as the Indus Valley Civilization, was one of the most advanced and sophisticated civilizations of its time. It flourished in the northwestern region of South Asia from 2600 BCE to 1900 BCE. This civilization is often referred to as ‘Harappan’ civilization because the first excavated city was Harappa, located in present-day Pakistan.

Geography and Urban Planning

The Ancient Valley Civilization was spread across a vast area encompassing parts of modern-day India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. The civilization was built around two major rivers, the Indus and Saraswati Rivers.

The cities were well-planned with an excellent drainage system and intricate water supply networks. The presence of public baths indicates that personal hygiene was given importance.

Social Life

The society was divided into different classes based on their occupation. Each city had its own ruler who managed the affairs of the city with help from a council of elders. The people were engaged in multiple occupations such as agriculture, pottery making, metalworking, jewelry making, weaving, etc.

Trade and Commerce

The Ancient Valley Civilization had a thriving trade network both within and outside its borders. Archaeological excavations revealed that they traded with Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq), Central Asia (present-day Turkmenistan), Egypt, and even as far as Rome.

Language and Writing System

One of the most intriguing features of this civilization is their writing system. The script used by them is still undeciphered due to lack of evidence but many scholars believe it to be similar to Dravidian languages like Tamil or Telugu.


The reasons for the decline of this great civilization are still a mystery to archaeologists and historians. Some theories suggest that it could have been due to natural disasters like floods or earthquakes, while others attribute it to invasion and conquest by the Aryans.


In conclusion, the Ancient Valley Civilization was a highly advanced and sophisticated civilization that flourished for centuries. Their contribution to urban planning, trade, and commerce, language and writing system are still studied and admired by historians worldwide. The Indus Valley Civilization continues to be a source of inspiration for modern civilizations in terms of their social organization, technological advancements, and cultural diversity.