What Is Boer War in World History?

The Boer War, also known as the South African War, was a conflict fought from 1899 to 1902 between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic and the Orange Free State. It is considered one of the defining moments in South African history and played a significant role in shaping the country’s future.


The roots of the conflict can be traced back to the discovery of diamonds and gold in South Africa during the late 19th century. This led to an influx of foreigners into the region, including British settlers who sought to exploit these resources. However, tensions soon arose between these new arrivals and the Boer farmers who had been living in South Africa for generations.

The First Boer War

In 1880, tensions boiled over into open conflict when the Boers rebelled against British rule in what became known as the First Boer War. The conflict ended with a surprising victory for the Boers, who gained their independence from Britain.

The Second Boer War

However, tensions continued to simmer between Britain and the Boers over issues such as land ownership and political representation. In 1899, war broke out once again when Britain demanded voting rights for foreign miners in Transvaal. The resulting conflict would come to be known as The Second Boer War.

The Course of the War

The war was marked by brutal guerrilla tactics on both sides, with neither able to gain a decisive advantage for much of its duration. However, Britain eventually managed to gain control of key strategic positions and cut off supplies to many of the Boer forces.

Concentration Camps

One of the most controversial aspects of The Second Boer War was Britain’s use of concentration camps to house civilians who were deemed sympathetic to or supportive of the Boer cause. Conditions in these camps were often appalling, with high rates of disease and mortality.


The war had a profound impact on South African society, leading to resentment towards the British and a growing sense of Afrikaner nationalism. This would eventually lead to the establishment of apartheid in the mid-20th century.

International Relations

Internationally, The Second Boer War damaged Britain’s reputation as a moral leader and helped to shift global opinion towards anti-imperialism.

  • In conclusion, The Boer War was a complex conflict with deep roots in South African history. Its legacy is still felt today, both in South Africa and around the world.
  • It serves as a reminder of the dangers of imperialism and the importance of respecting local cultures and traditions.