What Is the Ancient Civilization of Peru?

Peru is a country that is rich in history and ancient civilizations. One of the most fascinating civilizations that once thrived in this region was the Inca civilization.

However, before the Incas, there were other civilizations that also made their mark on the history of Peru. Let’s take a closer look at the ancient civilization of Peru.

The Norte Chico Civilization

The Norte Chico Civilization existed in what is now known as modern-day Peru around 3500 BCE. This civilization was one of the first to develop in South America and is considered to be one of the oldest civilizations in the world.

The people of this civilization lived along the coast and relied on fishing as their primary source of food. They built impressive structures made of stone, some of which can still be seen today.

The Moche Civilization

The Moche Civilization emerged around 200 CE and flourished until around 700 CE. This civilization was known for its impressive pottery work, which depicted daily life, religion, and even human sacrifices. They also built impressive irrigation systems that allowed them to farm and thrive in areas where water was scarce.

The Nazca Civilization

The Nazca Civilization existed from around 100 BCE to 800 CE and is best known for its geoglyphs. These are large designs created on the ground by removing rocks and earth to reveal lighter-colored soil underneath.

Some of these designs depict animals, plants, and even humans. The purpose behind these geoglyphs is still debated by scholars today.

The Wari Civilization

The Wari Civilization emerged around 600 CE and lasted until around 1100 CE. This civilization was known for its impressive architecture and engineering skills, including building roads, aqueducts, and terraces for farming on steep hillsides.

The Inca Empire

Finally, we come to the Inca Empire, which is perhaps the most well-known ancient civilization in Peru. The Inca Empire emerged in the 13th century and lasted until the arrival of Spanish conquistadors in the 16th century.

The Incas were known for their impressive engineering feats, including building roads and bridges to connect their vast empire. Their capital city of Cusco was also a marvel of engineering, with stone buildings that still stand today.


In conclusion, Peru has a rich history of ancient civilizations that have left their mark on the region. From the Norte Chico Civilization to the Inca Empire, each civilization brought its unique culture, art, and engineering skills to this land. Visiting Peru today allows us to marvel at the impressive structures and artifacts left behind by these ancient civilizations and appreciate their contributions to human history.