What Is the Background of Ancient Greece?

Ancient Greece is a civilization that left an indelible mark on the world. The birthplace of democracy, philosophy, and the Olympic Games, Greece has a rich and fascinating history that continues to captivate people today.

The Geography of Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was located on the Balkan Peninsula in southeastern Europe. The country was made up of mountainous terrain and surrounded by water on three sides. Because of its geography, ancient Greece was divided into many small city-states that were often at war with each other.

The Early History of Ancient Greece

The earliest known civilization in Greece was the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete, which flourished from around 2600 to 1400 BCE. The Mycenaean civilization emerged around 1600 BCE and lasted until about 1100 BCE. This period is sometimes called the Dark Ages because there are few written records from this time.

The Golden Age

The Golden Age of Greece began in the fifth century BCE and lasted until the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BCE. This period saw a flourishing of art, architecture, literature, philosophy, and science.

Art: Greek art is known for its realism and attention to detail. Famous examples include the sculptures of Phidias such as the statue of Athena Parthenos in Athens.

Architecture: Greek architects developed three styles: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. Famous examples include the Parthenon temple in Athens.

Literature: The Greeks wrote epic poems such as Homer’s “Iliad” and “Odyssey” as well as plays by writers such as Sophocles and Euripides.

Philosophy: Greeks philosophers such as Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle developed ideas about ethics, politics, and metaphysics that continue to influence Western thought.

Science: Greeks scientists such as Archimedes and Pythagoras made important contributions to mathematics, physics, and astronomy.

The Decline of Ancient Greece

After Alexander the Great’s death, Greece was conquered by the Romans in 146 BCE. The country remained under Roman rule until the fall of the Roman Empire in 476 CE. However, Greek culture continued to thrive under the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantine Empire until it was conquered by the Ottoman Turks in 1453.


In conclusion, ancient Greece was a civilization that made significant contributions to art, architecture, literature, philosophy, and science. Its legacy continues to inspire people around the world today.