What Is the Deadliest Workplace Disaster in American History?

The deadliest workplace disaster in American history occurred on March 25, 1911, at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory in New York City. This tragedy claimed the lives of 146 garment workers, most of whom were young immigrant women.

The Setting

The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory was located on the eighth floor of the Asch Building in Manhattan. The factory employed over 500 workers who were responsible for producing women’s blouses, or “shirtwaists,” as they were called at the time.

The Fire

On the day of the fire, workers had already started to leave for the day when a fire broke out in a scrap bin on the eighth floor. Within minutes, flames had engulfed much of the factory.

Panic and Tragedy

Workers scrambled to find exits and escape from the burning building. Unfortunately, many of them found that exit doors were locked or blocked by piles of clothing and other materials. Others tried to escape by jumping from windows but fell to their deaths.

Firefighters Respond

Firefighters arrived quickly but were unable to save many of those trapped inside due to ladders that couldn’t reach high enough and hoses with insufficient water pressure.

The Aftermath

The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire was a turning point in American history. It led to changes in workplace safety regulations and increased awareness of workers’ rights. The tragedy also sparked a new wave of union organizing and activism focused on improving working conditions across industries.

  • Within days after the fire, more than 400,000 people marched in a funeral procession for the victims.
  • A commission appointed by New York Governor John Alden Dix investigated the fire and recommended new safety measures such as sprinklers, better ventilation systems, and fire escapes.
  • The International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union (ILGWU) and other labor organizations pushed for better wages, shorter work hours, and improved safety standards.


The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire remains one of the most devastating workplace disasters in American history. It serves as a reminder of the importance of workplace safety regulations and the need to protect workers’ rights. As we continue to strive for safer workplaces and better working conditions, we must never forget the lives lost in this tragic event.