What Is the Location of Athens in Ancient Greece?

Athens was one of the most significant cities in Ancient Greece, known for its cultural and intellectual achievements. The city-state of Athens was located in the southeastern part of Greece, on the Attica peninsula. It was surrounded by mountains on three sides and had access to the Aegean Sea to the south.

Geographical Location

Athens is situated at 37.98° N latitude and 23.73° E longitude. The city is built around seven hills – Acropolis, Areopagus, Hill of Philopappus, Observatory Hill, Pnyx, Lycabettus Hill, and Tourkovounia – which provided natural defenses against invaders. The city is also located near two rivers -the Cephissus and Ilissus- which provided a source of water for the people.

The Acropolis

The Acropolis is a rocky outcrop that rises 150 meters above sea level in the heart of Athens. It is one of the most famous landmarks in Greece and has been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage site. The Acropolis was home to several important temples, including the Parthenon (dedicated to Athena), Erechtheion (dedicated to both Athena and Poseidon), and Temple of Athena Nike.

The Parthenon

The Parthenon is an ancient temple located on top of the Acropolis hill dedicated to Athena Parthenos (“Virgin”). It was constructed in the mid-5th century BCE under Pericles’ leadership as part of his building program aimed at making Athens “the envy of all Greece.” The temple’s architecture incorporates Doric columns and intricate friezes that depict Greek mythological scenes.


Adjacent to the Parthenon stands another important temple called Erechtheion. This temple was dedicated to both Athena and Poseidon, and it is famous for its Caryatids – six sculpted female figures that serve as columns. The temple was built on the site where Poseidon struck his trident, and the sea god’s saltwater spring can still be found under the temple.

Olympic Games

Athens hosted the first modern Olympic Games in 1896. The games were held in honor of the ancient Olympic Games that were held in Olympia, Greece from the 8th century BCE to the 4th century CE. The modern Olympic Games have since become one of the world’s most significant sporting events.


In conclusion, Athens was located in a strategic position on the Attica peninsula with natural defenses provided by mountains and access to water. The city-state was home to many significant landmarks such as the Acropolis, Parthenon, Erechtheion, and hosted the first modern Olympic Games. Athens remains an important cultural and historical center in Greece today, attracting millions of visitors every year to witness its rich cultural heritage and remarkable achievements from ancient times.