What Is the Society of Ancient Greece?

The Society of Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece is renowned for its rich and vibrant culture that has influenced many aspects of modern society. The society of ancient Greece was characterized by a unique set of principles and values that shaped the way people lived, interacted, and governed themselves.

Geography and Demography

Greece is a small country located in southeastern Europe on the Mediterranean Sea. It is made up of a mountainous peninsula and numerous islands that provided natural boundaries between various city-states. The Greeks were not a homogeneous people but rather divided into different ethnic groups, each with their own dialects and customs.

Social Classes

The ancient Greek society was divided into three main classes: the upper class, the middle class, and the lower class. The upper class consisted of aristocrats who were wealthy landowners or held high political positions. They enjoyed certain privileges such as access to education, political power, and the right to participate in government.

The middle class comprised merchants, traders, artisans, and farmers who owned small plots of land. They were considered free citizens but had limited political power.

The lower class consisted of slaves who were owned by individuals or the state. Slaves did not have any rights or freedoms and were forced to do menial work.


Ancient Greeks valued education, democracy, philosophy, art, literature, sportsmanship, hospitality, and honor above all else. Education was highly valued among Greeks as it was believed that an educated person would be able to contribute more to society.

Democracy was invented in Athens in 508 BC where citizens could participate in government through various institutions such as popular assemblies and courts.

Philosophy was another significant aspect of Greek culture which dealt with questions about life’s meaning and purpose. Famous philosophers like Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle laid down foundations for Western Philosophy.

Art and literature were also essential to the Greeks’ way of life. They believed that beauty was a reflection of the divine and created sculptures, pottery, and literature that celebrated their gods, heroes, and daily life.

Sportsmanship was also valued as it promoted physical fitness, teamwork, and healthy competition. The ancient Olympics held every four years in Olympia were a means to honor the gods.

Hospitality was another crucial value of Greek society. Guests were treated with respect and offered food, shelter, and protection. This practice was considered sacred as it reflected the moral character of the host.

Lastly, honor or “kleos” in Greek was highly prized among warriors who would rather die than be dishonored in battle.


In conclusion, the society of ancient Greece was complex and varied but its impact on Western civilization is undeniable. From democracy to philosophy to art, Greeks have left an indelible mark on human history that continues to shape our world today.