What Kind of Civilization Was Ancient Rome?

Ancient Rome is one of the most influential civilizations in human history. They are known for their military prowess, engineering feats, and cultural achievements.

But what kind of civilization were they exactly? Let’s delve deeper into their society, economy, and government to find out.


The Roman society was divided into different classes or orders. At the top were the patricians, wealthy landowners who held most of the political power.

Below them were the plebeians, common people who had few rights but made up the majority of the population. Slaves were also an integral part of Roman society and were treated as property rather than people.


The family was central to Roman society. It was seen as a way to preserve tradition and ensure social stability.

The father was the head of the household and had complete control over his wife, children, and slaves. Marriage was considered a duty rather than a choice, and divorce was frowned upon.


The Roman economy was based on agriculture, trade, and conquest. Wealthy landowners owned large estates called latifundia that produced crops such as wheat, grapes, and olives. These products were sold at markets or exported to other parts of the empire.


Trade played an important role in the Roman economy. The Romans built an extensive network of roads that connected different parts of their empire.

This allowed goods to be transported quickly and efficiently across long distances. Rome also had a large navy that protected its trade routes from pirates.


The Roman government was a complex system that evolved over time. At first, Rome was ruled by kings who had absolute power over their subjects. However, after a period of turmoil known as the Roman Revolution, Rome became a republic.


In the Roman Republic, power was divided among different branches of government. There were two consuls who were elected annually and had executive power.

The Senate was made up of wealthy patricians who advised the consuls and had legislative power. Finally, there was the Assembly, which was made up of all male citizens and had the power to elect officials and pass laws.


In conclusion, Ancient Rome was a complex civilization that had a significant impact on human history. Their society was divided into different classes, their economy was based on agriculture and trade, and their government evolved from a monarchy to a republic. By understanding what kind of civilization Ancient Rome was, we can better appreciate their achievements and learn from their mistakes.