What Made Ancient Rome a Great Civilization?

Ancient Rome is widely regarded as one of the greatest civilizations in human history. The Roman Empire was a vast and powerful empire that spanned three continents and lasted for over 500 years.

So, what made Ancient Rome so great? Let’s take a closer look.

The Roman Republic

The Roman Republic was founded in 509 BCE and lasted until the Roman Empire was established in 27 BCE. During this time, Rome developed a complex system of government that allowed for the participation of all citizens.

The Senate, composed of wealthy patricians, advised two consuls who held executive power for one year terms. These consuls were elected by the people and had to work together to make decisions.

The Roman Army

One of the greatest strengths of Ancient Rome was its military might. The Roman army was well-trained and disciplined, with soldiers receiving extensive training in weapons, tactics, and strategy. This allowed them to conquer much of Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East.

Roads and Infrastructure

Rome is famous for its roads, which were an essential part of its infrastructure. The Romans built over 50,000 miles of roads throughout their empire, allowing for faster travel and better communication between cities.

Arts and Culture

Ancient Rome also left a lasting impact on the world through its art and culture. From impressive architecture like the Colosseum to beautiful mosaics found in villas across the empire, Ancient Rome’s artistic achievements are still celebrated today.

Science and Philosophy

The Romans were also skilled in science and philosophy. Some notable thinkers from Ancient Rome include Seneca, Cicero, and Marcus Aurelius who wrote about philosophy topics such as ethics and virtue.

Civil Law

Another major contribution that Ancient Rome made to the world was civil law. The Romans were the first to establish a legal system that applied to all citizens, regardless of their social status. This system was based on the principle of innocent until proven guilty and had a lasting impact on Western legal systems.


In conclusion, Ancient Rome was a great civilization due to its complex government, powerful military, impressive infrastructure, and lasting contributions to art, culture, philosophy, and law. Its legacy can still be seen in modern society today, making it an important part of human history.