What Philosophy Did Ancient Greece Have?

Ancient Greece is known for its rich history, culture, and philosophy. It is often referred to as the cradle of Western civilization, and rightly so.

The ancient Greeks were pioneers in many fields, including philosophy. They developed a unique way of looking at the world and understanding reality that still impacts modern thought today.

What is Philosophy?

Philosophy is a way of thinking about the world that seeks to answer fundamental questions about existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. It is an inquiry into the nature of things and their relationship with each other. Philosophy aims to understand the world through critical reflection and rational argumentation.

The ancient Greeks were among the first to develop a systematic approach to philosophy. They were interested in exploring the fundamental nature of reality and how humans could understand it. Their philosophical ideas have influenced thinkers throughout history and continue to do so.

The Pre-Socratic Philosophers

The Pre-Socratic philosophers were the earliest Greek philosophers who lived between 600 BCE and 400 BCE. They were called Pre-Socratic because they lived before Socrates (470/469 BCE – 399 BCE), who is considered one of the most influential figures in Western philosophy.

The Pre-Socratic philosophers focused on questions about nature and the universe. They tried to explain the world without relying on myths or religious beliefs. Instead, they used reason and observation to understand reality.

Some of the most famous Pre-Socratic philosophers include Thales (624 BCE – 546 BCE), Anaximander (610 BCE – 546 BCE), Heraclitus (535 BCE – 475 BCE), Parmenides (515 BCE – 450 BCE), and Democritus (460/370 BCE).

The Sophists

The Sophists were a group of philosophers who lived during the fifth century BCE. They were known for their skepticism towards absolute truth and their emphasis on the importance of language and rhetoric. The Sophists believed that truth was subjective, and that what mattered most was the ability to persuade others through effective communication.

Some of the most prominent Sophists were Protagoras (490 BCE – 420 BCE), Gorgias (485 BCE – 380 BCE), and Antiphon (480 BCE – 411 BCE). They were known for their skills in debate and persuasion, and they taught these skills to others for a fee.

The Socratic Philosophers

Socrates is perhaps the most famous Greek philosopher. He lived in Athens during the fifth century BCE and is known for his method of questioning, which is now called the Socratic method. Socrates believed that wisdom came from admitting one’s own ignorance and questioning everything.

Socrates did not leave any written works, but his ideas were recorded by his students, Plato (428/427 BCE – 348/347 BCE) and Xenophon (c. 430 BCE – 354 BCE). Plato went on to become one of the most important philosophers in history, founding the Academy in Athens, which was the first institution of higher learning in Western civilization.


Aristotle (384 BCE – 322 BCE) was a student of Plato’s and one of the most influential philosophers in history. He wrote extensively on a wide range of topics including metaphysics, ethics, politics, biology, and logic.

Aristotle believed that knowledge comes from experience and observation. He rejected Plato’s theory of Forms, which held that there is a perfect version of everything in existence. Instead, Aristotle believed that objects have essential qualities that make them what they are.


The ancient Greeks had a profound impact on philosophy. They developed new ways of thinking about reality that continue to influence modern thought today.

From the Pre-Socratic philosophers to Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, the ancient Greeks laid the foundation for Western philosophy and intellectual inquiry. Their ideas continue to inspire and challenge us to this day.