In ancient Greece, the ruler of a city-state was called a king. The position of the king was hereditary, which means it was passed down from father to son. However, in some cases, the position could be awarded to someone who had shown great bravery in battle or had won the favor of the people.
The king was considered to be the most powerful person in the city-state and held both political and military power. He was responsible for making important decisions concerning the state, such as laws and policies, as well as leading his army into battle.
To show respect for their king, ancient Greeks used different titles when addressing him depending on their relationship with him. For instance, close family members referred to him as “father,” while friends and acquaintances used “comrade” or “companion.” On formal occasions or when addressing him in public, however, they used more respectful titles such as “lord” or “master.”
Interestingly enough, not all ancient Greek rulers were referred to as kings. Some city-states preferred to use different titles for their rulers.
For example, Sparta had two kings who were referred to as “ephors.” Athens had an elected leader called an “archon,” and Thebes had a council of leaders known as “boeotarchs.”
In conclusion, while the title of “king” was common in ancient Greece for rulers of city-states, it wasn’t always used universally. Nonetheless, this position held immense power and influence over the people they governed.