What Was Considered Evil in Ancient Greece?

In Ancient Greece, the concept of evil was deeply intertwined with their religious beliefs and moral values. The Greeks believed that certain actions and behaviors were considered morally wrong and were deemed evil by their society.

The Role of the Gods

Religion played a significant role in defining what was considered evil in Ancient Greece. The Greeks believed in a pantheon of gods who controlled various aspects of human life. These gods set the standards for morality and punished those who committed evil acts.

The gods themselves were not always portrayed as morally perfect; they often exhibited human-like flaws and engaged in immoral behavior. However, the gods’ actions were not seen as evil but rather as part of their divine nature.

Moral Virtues

The ancient Greeks valued moral virtues such as wisdom, courage, justice, temperance, and piety. Any behavior that deviated from these virtues was generally considered evil.


Hubris, or excessive pride, was one of the most severe moral transgressions in Ancient Greece. It referred to an arrogant mindset that disregarded the boundaries set by the gods and led to overstepping one’s place in society. Hubris often provoked divine retribution and was seen as a direct challenge to the authority of the gods.


  • Injustice was another form of evil highly condemned in Ancient Greece. Upholding justice was crucial to maintain social order and harmony within their city-states.
  • Greek philosophers such as Plato argued that justice involved giving each person their due according to their merits and treating others fairly.
  • Any act that violated this principle, such as cheating, bribery, or unfair treatment of others, was considered morally wrong.

Superstitions and Taboos

Ancient Greeks had various superstitions and taboos that shaped their understanding of evil. They believed in the existence of malevolent spirits and evil forces that could bring harm to individuals and communities.

They practiced rituals and avoided certain actions or places they believed were associated with evil. For example, it was considered unlucky to walk under a ladder or to have a black cat cross one’s path.


In Ancient Greece, what was considered evil revolved around religious beliefs, moral virtues, and superstitions. Actions like hubris and injustice were seen as grave offenses against the gods and society’s moral fabric. By understanding these ancient Greek concepts of evil, we gain insights into their unique worldview and values.