What Was Sparta Like in Ancient Greece?

Sparta, the ancient Greek city-state known for its military prowess, is a fascinating subject of study for historians and enthusiasts alike. Let’s take a closer look at what life was like in Sparta during ancient times.

Location and History

Sparta was located in the southern part of Greece, on the Peloponnesian peninsula. It was founded sometime around 900 BCE by the Dorian Greeks, who conquered the indigenous population. The city-state gradually grew in power and became one of the dominant forces in ancient Greece.

Social Structure

Spartan society was highly structured and hierarchical. At the top were the two kings, who ruled jointly but had limited power.

Below them were the citizens, who were all male and had to be born to Spartan parents. These citizens made up only a small percentage of the total population.

Below the citizens were the perioikoi, who were free men but not citizens. They lived in towns surrounding Sparta and provided much of its economic support through trade and industry.

At the bottom were the helots, who were essentially slaves owned by Spartan citizens. They worked as farmers and laborers and were treated harshly.


Sparta’s economy was based primarily on agriculture. Citizens owned large estates worked by helots, which provided them with food and other necessities. Spartans also engaged in some trade with other Greek city-states, but this was relatively limited.


The Spartan military was legendary for its discipline and effectiveness. All male citizens received rigorous military training from a young age and served in the army until they reached 60 years old.

The backbone of Sparta’s army was its hoplites – heavily armed infantry soldiers who fought with long spears called doru, round shields called aspis, and bronze helmets. Spartans also had a cavalry, but it was relatively small compared to their infantry.


Spartan culture was centered around the military and the idea of self-discipline. Spartans were famous for their austere lifestyle, which included living in communal barracks, eating simple food, and eschewing luxuries.

Spartan women also had a unique role in society. They received education and physical training similar to men and were encouraged to be strong and fit. This was partly because Spartan society believed that strong women would produce strong children.


Although Sparta’s power declined in the centuries after its heyday, its influence on ancient Greek culture and history cannot be overstated. Its military tactics and discipline were studied by other city-states, and its reputation as a formidable opponent persisted long after its decline.

In conclusion, Sparta was a unique city-state in ancient Greece with a highly structured society centered around the military. Although it had some flaws – such as the treatment of helots – it remains an intriguing subject of study for anyone interested in ancient history or military culture.