What Was the First Law in Ancient Greece?

Ancient Greece is often regarded as the birthplace of Western civilization. With a rich history spanning over thousands of years, it’s no surprise that the Greeks had a complex system of laws. But what was the first law in Ancient Greece?

Origins of Greek Law

Greek law has its roots in ancient customs and traditions that were passed down through generations. These customs were often enforced by the community as a whole, rather than by a central authority. However, as Greek society became more complex and developed, a need for formalized laws arose.

The First Law: Drakon’s Code

The first written law code in Ancient Greece was created by a man named Drakon in 621 BCE. Drakon was an Athenian lawmaker who was tasked with creating a set of laws that would apply to all citizens equally.

The code was famously harsh, with many crimes being punishable by death. In fact, the term “draconian” is still used today to describe laws that are excessively harsh or severe.

Some of the key provisions of Drakon’s code included:

  • Death penalty for murder and other serious crimes
  • Fines for lesser offenses like theft and damage to property
  • Enforcement of debts through slavery

Despite its severity, Drakon’s code was an important step towards creating a more just and equitable society in Ancient Greece.

Solon’s Reforms

In 594 BCE, another Athenian lawmaker named Solon introduced a series of reforms aimed at addressing some of the issues with Drakon’s code.

Solon abolished debt slavery and replaced it with more lenient forms of punishment such as fines or temporary servitude. He also created new categories of citizenship based on wealth rather than birthright.

Perhaps most importantly, Solon established a court system that allowed citizens to challenge unjust laws and seek redress for grievances. This was a significant departure from the previous system, which relied on the arbitrary enforcement of community customs.


Although Drakon’s code was harsh and unforgiving, it laid the foundation for more equitable laws in Ancient Greece. Solon’s reforms built upon this foundation and helped to create a more just and democratic society.

Today, the legacy of Ancient Greek law can still be seen in modern legal systems around the world. From trial by jury to the concept of innocent until proven guilty, many of our most fundamental legal principles have their roots in Ancient Greece.