What Was the Purpose of Greek Mythology in Ancient Greece?

Greek mythology was an integral part of ancient Greek culture, and it served various purposes in the society. The myths were used as a way of explaining natural phenomena, human behavior, and the relationship between humans and gods. In this article, we will explore the purpose of Greek mythology in ancient Greece.

Explaining Natural Phenomena

One of the primary purposes of Greek mythology was to explain natural phenomena. Ancient Greeks believed that everything had a divine explanation, and they used myths to understand natural events that they couldn’t explain through science. For instance, the myth of Demeter and Persephone explains the changing seasons.

According to the myth, Hades kidnapped Persephone and took her to the underworld. Demeter, her mother, was grief-stricken and refused to let anything grow until she was reunited with her daughter.

Zeus eventually intervened and made Hades return Persephone to her mother for half of every year. This myth explains why we have winter (when Persephone is in the underworld) and summer (when she is reunited with Demeter).

Teaching Moral Lessons

Greek mythology also served as a way of teaching moral lessons to people. The stories often depicted heroes who had virtues like courage, loyalty, wisdom, and justice. For example, the story of Theseus tells how he killed the Minotaur in Crete using his wits instead of brute strength.

Theseus is portrayed as brave for taking on such a daunting task but also wise for using his intelligence instead of just relying on his physical abilities. The story teaches us that bravery alone isn’t enough; we also need intelligence and strategy to succeed.

Providing Entertainment

Another purpose served by Greek mythology was providing entertainment for people. Myths were often told at festivals or during theatrical performances for people’s enjoyment. These stories were also depicted in art, such as pottery and sculptures, which were sold or traded.

The stories were also used to teach people how to be good hosts. According to Greek mythology, the gods could disguise themselves as humans and would often visit people’s homes unannounced.

The myth of Baucis and Philemon tells the story of an elderly couple who welcomed two strangers into their home, not knowing that they were actually Zeus and Hermes in disguise. The couple treated them with kindness and hospitality, which pleased the gods. As a reward, they were granted a wish: to live together forever.


In conclusion, Greek mythology served various purposes in ancient Greece. It explained natural phenomena, taught moral lessons, provided entertainment, and taught people how to be good hosts. It was an integral part of the culture and has continued to influence art and literature throughout history.