What Were the Classes in Ancient Greece?

In ancient Greece, society was divided into different classes based on factors such as wealth, occupation, and citizenship. These classes played a significant role in shaping the social and political structure of the ancient Greek civilization.

The Aristocracy

The highest class in ancient Greece was the aristocracy. This class consisted of wealthy landowners and nobles who held significant political power. They were often descendants of prominent families and enjoyed privileges such as owning large estates, participating in decision-making processes, and leading the military.

The Middle Class

Below the aristocracy was the middle class, known as the zeugitai. This class primarily comprised farmers, artisans, and merchants who owned smaller plots of land or businesses. While they were not as influential as the aristocrats, they played a vital role in contributing to the economy of ancient Greece.

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The Lower Class

The lower class in ancient Greece was made up of slaves, foreigners, and non-citizens. Slavery was prevalent during this time, with enslaved individuals serving as laborers for the aristocracy and middle-class citizens. Foreigners who settled in Greek city-states but did not have citizenship rights also belonged to this class.

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  • Slaves: Enslaved individuals who performed various tasks for their owners.
  • Foreigners: Non-Greeks living in Greek city-states without citizenship rights.
  • Non-citizens: Individuals born outside the city-state who did not possess Greek citizenship.


In ancient Greece, citizenship was a significant determinant of social class. Only free-born adult males who were descendants of citizens had full political rights and could participate in the government. These citizens were collectively responsible for making important decisions and electing officials.

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Citizen’s Rights and Responsibilities

Citizens had the right to vote in the assembly, hold public office, and serve in the military. They were also expected to pay taxes, serve on juries, and actively participate in civic life. Citizenship was a mark of social status and brought certain privileges that were not accessible to non-citizens.

Exclusion of Women

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Unfortunately, women in ancient Greece did not have citizenship rights and were largely excluded from political life. They were confined to domestic roles and had limited opportunities for education or public engagement.

In conclusion, ancient Greek society was divided into different classes based on wealth, occupation, and citizenship. The aristocracy held the highest status, followed by the middle class and then non-citizens such as slaves and foreigners. Citizenship played a crucial role in determining an individual’s social standing and political rights within the city-state.