What Were the Main Crops in Ancient Greece?

Ancient Greece was an agricultural society, with its economy mainly dependent on farming. The region’s mild climate and fertile soil made it possible to grow a variety of crops. In this article, we will discuss the main crops that were grown in Ancient Greece.

One of the most important staple crops grown in Ancient Greece was barley. It was a vital crop because it could grow in poor soil conditions and required less water than other grains. Barley was used to make bread, porridge, and beer.

Wheat was also grown in Ancient Greece, but it was not as popular as barley. Wheat required more fertile soil and more water to grow. It was used to make bread and cakes.

The olive tree was highly valued in Ancient Greece for both its fruit and oil. Olives were used for cooking, medicine, and lighting lamps. Olive oil was also used for bathing and grooming.

Grapes were another important crop in Ancient Greece. They were used to produce wine, which was an essential part of Greek culture. Wine was consumed during religious ceremonies, social gatherings, and even athletic events.

The following are some other crops that were grown in Ancient Greece:

  • Figs
  • Pomegranates
  • Apples
  • Pears
  • Peaches
  • Almonds
  • Honey

The Importance of Agriculture in Ancient Greece:

Agriculture played a crucial role in the development of Ancient Greek civilization. It provided food for the population, generated income for the economy, and supported the growth of cities.

The Role of Farmers:

Farmers were highly respected in Ancient Greece because they provided the essential crops that sustained the economy. They were responsible for tending to the land, planting and harvesting crops, and taking care of livestock.

The Impact of Agriculture on Greek Culture:

Agriculture had a significant impact on Greek culture, as it shaped their diet and traditions. Many of their religious ceremonies were centered around food and agriculture. Festivals such as the Thesmophoria, which honored Demeter (the goddess of agriculture), celebrated the harvest season with feasts and sacrifices.


In conclusion, agriculture played a vital role in Ancient Greek society. The region’s fertile soil allowed for a variety of crops to be grown, such as barley, wheat, olives, grapes, figs, pomegranates, apples, pears, peaches, almonds and honey.

Farmers were highly respected for their contribution to society. Agriculture also had a significant impact on Greek culture through its influence on their diet and traditions.