What Were the Two Main Cities of Ancient Greece?

Ancient Greece is known for its rich history, culture, and civilization. Among the many things that make Ancient Greece particularly fascinating is its cities.

Two main cities of Ancient Greece are Athens and Sparta. These two cities were very distinct in their culture, government, and way of life.


Athens is known as the birthplace of democracy. The city was home to many great thinkers such as Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Athens was also a center for arts and literature, with famous playwrights like Sophocles and Euripides.

Government: Athens had a democratic form of government where the citizens had the power to vote on important issues. However, not everyone was considered a citizen in Athens – only free-born men who were over 18 years old.

Architecture: The city was known for its impressive architecture such as the Parthenon – a temple dedicated to the goddess Athena.

  • Economy:

Athens’ economy relied heavily on trade since it was located near the sea. The city was also skilled in producing goods such as pottery and silverware.


Sparta is known for being a military state where discipline and strength were highly valued. The city’s army was one of the most formidable forces in Ancient Greece.

Government: Sparta had an oligarchic form of government where only a few elites held power.

Culture: Spartan society placed great emphasis on physical fitness and military training. Boys were taken from their families at age seven to begin their training as soldiers.

  • Economy:

Sparta’s economy relied heavily on agriculture since it was located inland and lacked access to trade routes.

Differences between Athens and Sparta

Despite being located relatively close to each other, Athens and Sparta had very different cultures and governments. Athens was known for its democratic form of government and emphasis on education and arts, while Sparta was known for its military state and emphasis on physical fitness.

In conclusion, Athens and Sparta were two of the most prominent cities of Ancient Greece. While they shared some similarities, such as their reliance on trade, they were very distinct in their culture, government, and way of life.