When Did the Civilization of Ancient Egypt Begin?

Ancient Egypt is one of the most fascinating civilizations in history. It is a culture that has captured the imagination of people around the world for centuries.

But when did this ancient civilization begin? Let’s take a closer look.

The Early Dynastic Period: 3150-2686 BCE

The civilization of ancient Egypt began during the Early Dynastic Period, which lasted from 3150 BCE to 2686 BCE. During this time, a number of kingdoms emerged along the Nile River valley, each with their own rulers and distinct cultures.

One of the most significant developments during this period was the establishment of Memphis, which became the capital city of Egypt. The early Egyptians were skilled farmers and traders, and they quickly developed an advanced system of writing and mathematics.

The Old Kingdom: 2686-2181 BCE

The Old Kingdom period followed the Early Dynastic Period and lasted from 2686 BCE to 2181 BCE. This era is perhaps best known for its monumental architecture, including the construction of the Great Pyramids at Giza.

During this time, Egyptian society was highly stratified, with pharaohs ruling over a vast network of priests, scribes, artisans, and farmers. The pharaohs were believed to be divine beings who wielded great power over life and death.

The Middle Kingdom: 2055-1650 BCE

The Middle Kingdom period began around 2055 BCE and lasted until approximately 1650 BCE. This era was marked by a period of political stability and economic prosperity.

During this time, Egypt expanded its territory through military conquests in Nubia and Syria. The pharaohs also became more closely associated with Osiris, god of death and rebirth.

The New Kingdom: 1550-1077 BCE

The New Kingdom period began around 1550 BCE and lasted until approximately 1077 BCE. This era was marked by a significant expansion of Egyptian power and influence, both militarily and culturally.

During this time, the pharaohs became more closely associated with the god Amun, who was seen as the king of the gods. The New Kingdom also saw the construction of some of Egypt’s most iconic monuments, including the temples at Luxor and Karnak.

The Late Period: 664-332 BCE

The Late Period began around 664 BCE and lasted until the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great in 332 BCE. During this time, Egypt was ruled by a series of foreign powers, including the Persians and Greeks.

Despite this period of political upheaval, Egyptian culture continued to thrive. The Egyptians developed new forms of art and literature, and they continued to worship their traditional gods in temples throughout the country.


In conclusion, the civilization of ancient Egypt began during the Early Dynastic Period around 3150 BCE. Over the centuries that followed, Egypt would become one of the world’s greatest civilizations, producing remarkable achievements in architecture, art, literature, mathematics, and science. Today, we continue to be fascinated by this ancient culture that has left such an indelible mark on human history.